Conclusive Jihad

Before we delve into the final stage of Jihad according to Quran, we take a look at another concept which is a large part of all Jihads, but presented in a variance of severity as per the various stages of Jihad.  Ghanimah (Mail e Ghanimat) or war booty was always allowed to the followers of Prophet Muhammad.  It is a concept of plunder, the violating of women and children of the Kuffar, and making joy out of this.  It is laid down very clearly in the scriptures as something lawful, pure and sanctioned. In the initial phase when the early Muslims carried out raids, the tenor is more tentative about enjoying the plunder.  It says in a very meek manner:

“Eat ye the spoils of war. They are lawful and pure” 8:69

As the crusade reaches Madina and starts to become more robust, the scriptures on the matter become more purposeful and descriptive, after successive victories.

“And He brought down those of the People of the Book who supported them from their fortresses and cast terror in their hearts; some you slew, some you made captive.” 33:26

The above verse was about the Jews, the people of the book, who were accused of helping the Makkah Pagans in wars, and thus expelled out of Madina in different stages, and different manners.  The second part of this verse talks about war captives, some of which were allowed to be taken as captives.  Also, this verse clearly says that all Kafir women are part of war booty.

“Also ˹forbidden are˺ married women—except ˹female˺ captives in your possession.”

The followers of the faith argue that the above is only part of a longer verse which goes on to explain that the women slaves are only lawful after you marry them.  However, this is where Sunnat kicks in, and we look at the life and narrations about the Prophet.  Safia and Rehana were from the Jew tribes, and Maria was a Christian woman gifted to the Prophet.

Now we come to the last stage of Jihad, revealed through verses which announce finality and a high level of severity.

Once it was determined that the community has strengthened itself to a large extent, the plans to attack and capture Makkah were put in place.  Soon after migration to Madina, when the community was on a weaker footing, the Prophet had tried to enter Makkah for pilgrimage, but the Makkah pagans were wary of his real intent so he was not allowed.  So he went and set camps in Hudaibiya, and made a pact with the Makkah Pagans called the Treaty of Hudaibiya (Sluah Hudaibiya).  The pact was violated by the new faith holders after two years, when they went to Makkah, abducted one of the Pagan leaders, forced him to come into the fold of their faith, and took over the Ka’aba.  Following this, there was mass destruction of the Murtis inside Ka’aba.

“Allah will say to the angels,˺ “Gather ˹all˺ the wrongdoers along with their wives, and whatever (idols) they used to worship instead of Allah, then lead them ˹all˺ to the path of Hell. 37:22

Surely on that Day they will ˹all˺ share in the punishment. That is certainly how We deal with the wicked. 37:33

You will certainly taste the painful torment, and will only be rewarded for what you used to do. 37:38-39″

Previously, according to the people of the book, Ibrahim had destroyed idols inside Ka’aba too, so this example was laid out in form of verses to further fortify the destruction this time. The episode of Ibrahim breaking the Murtis after mocking them for their inability to eat and speak, is narrated in 37:85-96 Quran.

The net outcome of this was that all the Murtis in the Hira region were destroyed at the same time, and there are several verses in the scriptures talking about these incidents.  Interestingly, at the time when Makkah was being taken over bloodlessly, the Pagans their were not all converted immediately.  After two years of take over, two Generals were sent to Makkah by the Prophet, and this is when the immunity verses were revealed.  Initially he had decided to spare all the idol worshippers, but then the immunity verses were revealed.  Following this, a messenger was sent to the two Generals who had been sent to Makkah already, and to them the message was delivered declaring immunity from Allah to keep any kind of pact with idol worshippers or have any kind of obligation towards them.

“˹This is˺ a discharge from all obligations, by Allah and His Messenger, to the polytheists you ˹believers˺ have entered into treaties with: “You ˹polytheists˺ may travel freely through the land for four months, but know that you will have no escape from Allah, and that Allah will confound the disbelievers. 9:1

Basically, the Pagans of Makkah were give a period of four months in which to leave the land or convert before that.

A declaration from Allah and His Messenger ˹is made˺ to all people on the day of the greater pilgrimage that Allah and His Messenger are free of the polytheists.  9:3

And with these verses the connection was made in the Calcutta Quran Petition.  These verses from Sura Tauba, which refers to the state after take over of Makkah, indicate the sort of abdication of the Islamic State’s responsibility from law and order, exalting the followers to slay idol worshippers wherever you find them.  The scripture contains many provocative verses which directly seem to incite the followers to riot.  One of these verses mentioned in the petition is

March forth whether it is easy or difficult for you, and strive with your wealth and your lives in the cause of Allah… 9:41

This verse is quoted many times in Namaz when the believers will go out and throw whatever is in their hands towards the establishments of the Kuffar.  The technicality behind this engagement is, that one can only go out when an Imam gives a call for Jihad, but when he does, it is the duty of all able bodied followers to come out. Thus, the active Jihad has to wait until the Imam gives a call.  Meanwhile the followers can carry out various covert, overt and direct acts of Jihad through other means in smaller groups or even individually, all towards the cause of the faith.  The followers of the Prophet have often argued, that there was no announcement for religious riots after Kaaba was taken over, or other lands were captured during the time of the Prophet.  However, this is where Dar ul Islam and Dar ul Harb kick in.  In the case of Pakistan, there is no need for a religious riot to take care of the non believing community, as they can be tackled by other means, since the country is Dar ul Islam, and the leaders have the authority to call for any action.  In a country like India, which has a sizeable Muslim population, the verses of immunity come into play.  The person who is qualified to give a call in this case cannot be the leader of the country, so any religious leaders who gives the call, has to be adhered to.  This is the reason why, under any disagreeable situation for the Muslims, it is frequently seen that protests emerge after Friday prayers, as any and all Imams presiding at any mosque have the power to give the call.  In the case of the Moplah riots, the call was given by the Ali brother, Maulana Hasrat Mohani and Maulana Abul Kalam Azad.  The Mayor of Calcutta, Muhammad Usman, gave the call for riots during the Great Calcutta Killings of 1946, ad stated the following:

“It was the month of Ramzan, that open war between the Muslamans and  Kafirs started in full swing.  It was the month that we entered victorious in Makkah and wiped out the idolators.  By Allah’s will, the All India Muslim League has selected the same month of Ramzan to start its Jihad of releasing Pakistan.”

The holocaust of Noakhili was also a full fledged cause for Jihad.  In this case the call came from Ghulam Sarwar, a Muslim MLA. Judge Simpson, who was investigating the matter, wrote this in his report:

“Large scale conversions of Hindus to Islam by application of force in village after village happened.  In many instances, upon the refusal of the menfolk, the women were confined and converted under duress.”

The laws and acts practiced during the time of the Prophet were repeated in these riots.  The severed head of Babu Rajinderlal Roy Choudhary, who was the president of the Bar Association, was presented to Gulam Sarwar on a platter, while his two daughters were handed over t the close henchmen of the MLA.

It would not be an exaggeration to state that in today’s India every single follower of the Prophet is fighting in the path the almighty.  Jihad is apparent in all actions they take, the causes they are fond of, the political opinion they hold, and the underprivileged they stand for.  This stands true sans economic stability, educational background, status in the society, and even if they declare themselves Atheists.  Even those who are not consciously aware of these edicts of their faith, are following the behaviors of others around them and playing their part in the Jihad.

“All Muslims are active or passive, direct or indirect, overt or covert, conscious or unconscious, agents of Islam.”  Smita Mukerji

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