• This research is primarily based on the writings of Ishtiaq Ahmed 
  • Ishtiaq Ahmed – Swedish Pakistani Political Scientist. Ishtiaq is a secular minded person and his writings are unbiased & neutral (truth as it is)
  • If you want to understand the events that led to Partition of India, watch this 6-part series  
    • Dialogue between Arvind Saharan & Ishtiaq Ahmed (6-part series – Compulsory Watch
  • History of the British Raj 
  • Indian National Congress 
  • All-India Muslim League
  • *1909 Morley-Minto reforms (Separate Electorate of Muslims) – was the 1st step (structural base) for Division of INDIA 
    • *YouTube (34:33-36:03 – Compulsory Watch): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J3aGWDX7ASs&list=LLk0ZEFnOOCsw9rrN_Xjp59Q&index=2 
    • The Muslim candidate was no longer obliged to consult the Hindus to get his vote (Muslim candidate, Muslim Voter)
    • The Hindu candidate was no longer obliged to consult the Muslims to get his vote (Hindu candidate, Hindu Voter)
    • Integral Evolution in a political system was damaged 
    • *Edwin Samuel Montagu (British Secretary of State for India) – “By introducing this, we are preventing the creation of Indian National Consciousness”
  • 1916 – Lucknow Pact 
    • Lucknow Pact – Congress & Muslim League agreed to allow representation to religious minorities in the provincial legislatures.
    • Jinnah played a crucial role to bring both parties (Congress & Muslim League) to an agreement. 
  • World War 1
    • Gandhi asked ‘all Indians’ to join Indian Army and support British in WW 1 
      • In return Gandhi thought British would leave India sooner 
  • 1919-24 – Khilafat Movement
    • Delegation of Congress & Muslim League went to Britain in 1916 and pleaded not to remove caliph of the Ottoman Caliphate
    • Jinnah was part of Khilafat Movement 
    • 1919 – Britain dismembered Ottoman Empire (Treaty of Sèvres)
    • Jinnah “ 1st they took away our land, now they want to destroy our religion”
  • 1928 – Nehru Report 
    • There will be no State Religion 
    • Men & Women will have equal rights as citizens 
    • India will be a Federation with strong center 
  • 1929 Lahore – Congress called for Purna Swaraj (complete self-rule independent of the British Empire)
    • Supported by Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind 
  • 1930 – 1st round table conference 
  • Allama Iqbal
    • Iqbal was the one who first proposed the IDEA of Muslim Homeland in North-West part of India (with or without the support of British)
    • Later he disowned his comments 
    • Died in 1938 
  • Chaudhary Rahmat Ali 
    • On 28 January 1933, Ali voiced the idea in a pamphlet titled “Now or Never; Are We to Live or Perish Forever?”
    • He is credited with creating the name “Pakistan” for a separate Muslim homeland in North-West part of India 
  • 1931-34 
    • Jinnah practiced LAW in England. 
    • In-detail information of these 3 years of Jinnah’s life is not present 
  • 1935 act – both Congress & Muslim League rejected it 
  • 1936 – Nehru speech in UP – “Socialism – Soviet Union Model
    • Rajagopalachari, Kriplani, Rajendra Prasad, Sardar Patel resigned in protest. Gandhi persuaded these 4 to come back to Congress. 
    • Birla’s made a press campaign against Nehru from April to June 1936 
  • 1937 – Muslim League was routed in Muslim Majority provinces of INDIA 
    • Punjab 2/175
    • Sindh, North West Frontier – 0 seats
  • 1937 UP Elections – Jinnah took this defeat personally (something in a deeper level changed in Jinnah)
    • Congress won the Elections 
    • There was a ‘Gentlemen Agreement’ in UP – whatever the result is, we will form a coalition government. But Congress alone formed the Government. 
    •  Rajendra Prasad, Abdul Kalam Azad, Nehru, Rafi Ahmed Kidwai – asked Jinnah to join Congress if he is to be considered for Minister ship. 
    • *Then on Jinnah assumes the leadership of Muslim Separatism. 
  • 1937 
    • In provinces Congress won – Congress Flag, Vande Mataram, Wardha Scheme were introduced 
    • Jinnah felt this is the 1st taste of Hindu Raj even before the British Left 
  • 1937-38 – M. S. Golwalkar – “we should treat Minorities just like Jews are been treated by Germany”
  • 1940 Lahore Resolution     
    • *YouTube (1:08:19 onwards – Compulsory Watch): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J3aGWDX7ASs&list=LLk0ZEFnOOCsw9rrN_Xjp59Q&index=2 
    • Lahore Resolution – The resolution called for independent states as seen by the statement on 23 march 1940: 
      • That geographically contiguous units are demarcated regions which should be constituted, with such territorial readjustments as may be necessary that the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in a majority as in the North Western and Eastern Zones of (British) India should be grouped to constitute ‘independent states’ in which the constituent units should be autonomous and sovereign. 
      • Observation: Pseudo-intellectuals (on both sides India & Pakistan) quote this statement and say “Jinnah didn’t want separate Homeland for Muslims, but he wanted Muslim majority provinces (North West & North East) of INDIA to be much more autonomous” 
    • 22-25 march 1940 – Muslim League meeting in Lahore 
    • 22 march 1940 – Jinnah Speech – in which he lays down his ideas step-by-step – “why Hindus & Muslims can never be One Nation, and why the division of INDIA is important”
      • *Most Important Speech of JINNAH – JINNAH wanted Partition of India – this speech creates the basis of ‘2 Nation Theory’, which is borrowed from Iqbal & Rahmat Ali without recognizing them being recognizing as original sources  
    • 25 march 1940 – Jinnah gave press conference in the afternoon 
      • Jinnah Says “23rd march 1940 resolution means nothing else, except that the division of INDIA” 
      • Observation: What was not mentioned explicitly (on 23rd march) is now definitely clarified  
      • Jinnah says “It is a fair demand, because these are 2 nations, when India & Pakistan come into being, it will create the basis of the true peace in the sub-continent, because two separate nations will have a full chance to develop according to their genius” 
      • Jinnah wanted division of INDIA (2nd Proof
        • Later on 100’s of times Jinnah said ‘I want the Division of India’   
    • Sundar Singh Majithia (Leader of Sikh National Party) – immediate response to Jinnah’s idea of ‘Partition of INDIA’
      • *“If the Muslims want to divide INDIA on the basis of religion, we will have PUNJAB divided on the basis of religion as well”
  • Bhagat Singh letters  
    • Bhagat Singh was concerned with the divisive politics of Congress Party 
    • Congress in its rallies raised following slogans 
      • Naara e Takbir Allah o Akbar
      • Vande Mataram 
      • Sat Sri Akaal 
      • Instead of ‘Hindustan Zindabad’  
  • 4th January 1940 – Meeting between ‘Periyar, Ambedkar & Jinnah’ in Malabar Hill (Mumbai)
    • Agenda: to build a united front against CONGRESS
    • Nothing Fruitful (actionable) came out of this meeting  
  • Major deference between Gandhi & Jinnah 
    • Jinnah believed in Constitutional Road towards Self-Rule 
    • Gandhi believed in Mass Movement (Civil Disobedience) towards Self-Rule 
  • August 1942 – Gandhi started ‘Quit INDIA Movement’ 
    • From 9th August British started arresting Congress Leaders 
    • August 1942-June 1947 – The whole Congress Party was in jail, and Muslim League had a free hand to go around preaching its Idea of Pakistan (open field to propagate its ideology) 
    • Jinnah in his rallies talked about ‘Islamic State, Justice during the Golden years of Islam’, but never used ISLAM in the official documents 
      • His ideology appealed to the ordinary Muslims 
  • 8th March 1944 – Jinnah’s speech at ‘Aligarh Muslim University’ 
    • * “When the 1st Indian converted to Islam, that’s when the foundation of Pakistan were laid, because that Indian was ostracized by his community, they would not dine with him, they would not sit with him”
    • Observation:
  • Muslim League supported British in WW2
    • ‘we are willing to cooperate during WW2 only if you assure us, after the War there will be the division of INDIA’
  • *Referendum in Muslim majority provinces for Partition of India 
    • Jinnah – “In Muslim majority provinces if referendum happens, only the Muslims will vote, the Hindus & Sikhs will not vote”
    • Gandhi was not willing to accept this demand 
    • 1944 – Talks between Jinnah & Gandhi failed
    • Observation: 
      • If referendum happened in Punjab (57.1% Muslims & 42.9% Hindus & Sikhs), 42.9% non-Muslims + at least 15-20% of secular Muslims (Unionist Party) would have voted in favor of united INDIA. 
      • If Punjab was not partitioned, then India would not have been partitioned. 
  • May 1945 – WW2 ended in Europe
  • 1945 – Meeting between: Master Tara Singh + Maharaja of Patiala & other Maharajas 
    • “If partition of India happened, Muslims should be expelled from East Punjab, Sikhs who come from West Punjab should be accommodated in Central Punjab (Indian side) & Princely States” 
    • Observation:
      • *The seed (IDEA) of Khalistan (separate homeland for SIKH’s) was started in 1945 (not in 1980’s)
  • 1945 – Shimla Conference 
  • 1946 – Provincial Elections 
    • Muslim league started using ‘Islamic Sloganeer’ 
      • ‘Voting for Pakistan is voting for Holy Prophet’
      • ‘those Muslims who don’t vote for Muslim League, there marriages will be declared invalid, and they will be denied Islamic Burial’
    • Out of 495 (reserved seats of Muslims) all over India, Muslim League won 440 
    • 43:03 to 48:56 –  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2RTXqyI_clM 
  • 1946 – Cabinet Mission Plan 
  • 16th August 1946 – Jinnah called for ‘Direct Action Day’  
    • Jinnah – “in one hand I have Constitutional Methods, in other hand I am holding a Pistol, now through ‘Direct Action’ we will create Pakistan” 
    • Muslim League governed Bengal Province in 1946
    • Communal riots in BENGAL
    • *Extreme HATE speeches by Muslim League Leaders in Bengal 
    • One sided ‘Retaliatory attacks’ on Muslims in BIHAR – in response to Bengal Riots 
      • 5000-6000 Muslims killed  
      • Nehru went to Bihar and condemned the attacks on Muslims 
    • Western UP 
      •  Hindu JAT v/s Muslim Meo – approximately 200 people killed (mainly Muslims) 
  • One-sided Communal Riots in North West Frontier Provence (present day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan) 
    • In December 1946, the Sikhs and Hindus of Hazara district, NWFP, were subjected to unprecedented savagery of Muslim mobs. Thousands fled to Punjab, some got refuge in Rawalpindi, but most went eastwards where Sikhs were in substantial numbers.
    • Hindu & Sikh Genocide happened in Hazara district (Mansehra, Balakot, Bafa, Shinkiari) 
    • Hundreds if not thousands were killed
  • BRITISH divided INDIA (not Jinnah or Nehru) 
    • In 1943 Lord Wavell became the Viceroy of India. He saw a document saying ‘Trusteeship of India would remain under British for the next 30 years (till 1973)’
    • American President Roosevelt pressured British Government to make India Independent. 
      • Churchill (Prime Minister) of Britain was pro Muslim League & anti Congress 
      • Americans wanted India to be independent & united
    • British Economy post WW2 
      • Americans were paying salaries to British Army 
      • British Economy was really bad 
    • Jinnah 
      • 22 march 1940 – Jinnah says “Up until now the British just ignored me, now they are laying the Red Carpet for me”
        • In the end, this is actually what happened
      • Jinnah’s message to AMERICA 
        • “Please don’t oppose the Creation of Pakistan, we as a Muslim Nation will be able to serve you not only in South Asia, but in Middle East also because of our cultural links”
    • British Army 
      • 1946 – Lieutenant General Francis Tucker’s statement 
        • “we need to create an ISLAMIC ARC extending from Algeria, into Arabian Desert, into Turkey, into Northern Hindustan; where through Islamic Ideology and British Science, we can prevent Soviet Communism” 
        • Francis Tucker – pro Muslim League, anti-Congress
      • Sir Claude Auchinleck (Supreme Commander South Asia) was ordered to make a memorandum on Pros/Cons of Partition 
        • On 11 may 1946 he submits the memorandum – decides against the ‘Partition of India’ 
      • 12 May 1947 – meeting between 3 heads of British Army + hero of WW2 Field Marshal Mintgumri on whether to ‘Partition INDIA’
        • Outcome of this meeting – Partition of INDIA is in the Interest of BRITISH
          • Hindustan may go its own way, but JINNAH has interest in joining the Common Wealth, we should demand Pakistan access to – Karachi port facilities, Pakistan air fields, Muslim Man Power”
    • British Government 
      • Jinnah & Muslim League supported British Army during WW2, but Gandhi & Congress where pressing ‘Quit INDIA Movement’ 
        • Nehru was – anti colonial, anti-imperial, inclined towards communism, leftist 
      • From the British point of view – Partition of INDIA was a way of holding on to the sub-continent even after power had been transferred  
      • If British were not interested in ‘Partition of India’ – they would have put Jinnah in Jail, the Muslim League movement would have been fizzle out (weakened) – just as they thrown all Congress Leaders in Jail during ‘Quit INDIA Movement’ 
      • For British ‘British Interest’ was paramount (everything was subservient to that)
      • People in INDIA & PAKISTAN should understand – ‘Partition of India’ was a British Decision 
        • Nehru v/s Jinnah who was right? – these are secondary issues  
        • Moral: beggars are not choosers
      • 27 December 1945 – Break Down Plan (of India)
        • If Partition of India is imminent, then necessary plan to implement it 
  • One-sided Communal Riots in North West Frontier Provence (present day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan) 
    • In December 1946, the Sikhs and Hindus of Hazara district, NWFP, were subjected to unprecedented savagery of Muslim mobs. Thousands fled to Punjab, some got refuge in Rawalpindi, but most went eastwards where Sikhs were in substantial numbers.
    • Hindu & Sikh Genocide happened in Hazara district (Mansehra, Balakot, Bafa, Shinkiari) 
    • Hundreds if not thousands were killed 
  • Clement Attlee, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, announced on 20 February 1947 that: The British Government would grant full self-government to British India by 30 June 1948 at the latest, The future of the Princely States would be decided after the date of final transfer is decided 
  • 8 March 1947 – Until then Congress was still hoping to retain INDIA as a united unit, but then realized that it may not be possible 
    • 8 Mar 1947 – CONGRESS High Command Resolution 
      • “we support SIKH demand for the Partition of PUNJAB” 
    • Observation: 
      • Now Congress also wants PARTITION, not on Muslim League’s conditions, but on its conditions 
  • Communal tensions in Punjab (Western India) 1947 
    • 2 March 1947 – ‘Malik Khizar Hayat Tiwana (Punjab Unionist Party)’ Chief Minister Punjab resigns 
      • Unionist party was a secular party. Initially Unionist party + Congress + Akali Dal formed a coalition government 
    • *Punjab Riots explained in detail (compulsory watch
    • 5 March 1947 – Multan Riots 
      • Seth Kalyan Das (prominent business man) & his Family were butchered   
      • 150-200 Hindus killed 
    • Sikh Genocide in Rawalpindi 6-12 March 1947 – 5000 to 7000 killed 
      • Rawalpindi City was a Hindu & Sikh majority city, while Rawalpindi District was Muslim majority district. 
      • Sikh’s were property holders in Rawalpindi City 
      • Neither Jinnah nor Mamdot (Muslim League – Punjab Chief) issued a public statement condemning the killings 
      • Observation: 
        • *British Indian Army’s Northern Command was in Rawalpindi – why didn’t they stop the riots? 
    • April 1947 – Communal Riots in Amritsar & Lahore 
      • Fight was equal on both sides  
  • Mid April 1947 – JINNAH persevering SIKH Leaders to join Pakistan (post Rawalpindi Genocide)
    • *YouTube (27:00 to 42:35): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JN2UQ2vv5iA&list=LLk0ZEFnOOCsw9rrN_Xjp59Q&index=2 
    • Jinnah wanted to accommodate Sikh’s also and in return wanted ‘Total Punjab’ to Pakistan
    • Jinnah promised a blank cheque to Sikh Leaders
      • Jinnah “what all your demands are, I am ready to accept” 
      • Jinnah even promised Sikhs, they will have a separate Army & administrative province inside Pakistan 
      • Sikh Leader Gyani Kartar Singh was inclined to accept Jinnah’s offer 
      • Hardit Singh Malik to JINNAH “Sir you are making all the promises but God forbid if something happens to you, what will happen then?” 
        • “My friend, in Pakistan my word will be like the word of God. No one dare go back on it,” replied Jinnah. ” 
      • Even though this is a tempting offer, Sikh’s rejected it. Rawalpindi Genocide may be the main reason for rejecting the offer. 
      • Source: http://thepartitionofindia.blogspot.com/2014/02/sikh-jinnah-meeting-1946.html 
    • * Observation:
      • If Sikhs had accepted this offer, entire Punjab may have gone to Pakistan. 
        • Total Punjab = West Punjab (now in Pakistan) + East Punjab (Punjab, Haryana, most of Himachal Pradesh) 
        • East Punjab & entire JAMMU & KASHMIR would have become part of Pakistan 
        • Thanks to MASTER TARA SINGH it did not happen 
      • *In today’s Pakistan if any Pakistani says “my word will be like the word of God”, he will be put immediately in Jail under Blasphemy Laws & later DEATH penalty will be awarded  
  • 3rd March 1947 – voting inside ‘Punjab Assembly’ by its Legislators – on the issue of whether PUNJAB should be part of ‘India or Pakistan’
  • 3 Christian Legislators in Unified Punjab Assembly voted in favor of Pakistan instead of India 
  • 89 votes came in favor of India, 91 votes came in favor of Pakistan, 3 Christian votes played a decisive role
  • 89 votes came against the division of Punjab, 91 votes came in favor, 3 Christian votes played a decisive role
  • Had these 3 Christians voted in favor of INDIA, India may have got LAHORE (the crown jewel of the British Raj) & more land during partition  
  • Why did these 3 Christian Legislators voted in favor PAKISTAN ? 
    • Answer: British told them to vote in favor of ‘Creation of Pakistan’
  • 22nd March 1947 – Lord Mountbatten (Last Viceroy of British Raj) arrives in India 
    • Mountbatten was ordered to transfer of power by June 1948 
    • Mountbatten talks with all kinds of leader – Congress, Muslim League, Ambedkar, Dravidian parties 
    • Around mid-April 1947 – Mountbatten came to the conclusion “Partition of India” is the only workable solution 
  • Jinnah’s appeal to Mountbatten 
    • “we Muslims have been a loyal people, we never opposed British Rule, How can British refuse our (Pakistan) entry into British Common Wealth”
  • Communication between Jinnah & Winston Churchill (Leader of Opposition Britain) 
Jinnah to Mountbatten: “we Muslims have been a loyal people, we never opposed British Rule, so how can British refuse our (Pakistan) entry into British Common Wealth”
  • Jinnah contradicting ‘2 Nation Theory’ 
    • Hindus & Muslims can’t leave together at All-India level, at the same time Muslim League demanded not divide Punjab & Bengal on religion bases 
    •  May 1947 Jinnah Says 
      • “Punjabi is 1st a Punjabi, next he may be Sikh or Hindu or Muslim”
      • “Bengali is 1st a Bengali, next he may be Hindu or Muslim”
  • 3 June Partition Plan 1947 (Partition of Bengal & Punjab)
    • YouTube (42:34 to 1:14:01): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JN2UQ2vv5iA&list=LLk0ZEFnOOCsw9rrN_Xjp59Q&index=2 
    • Partition Plan – There will be a Boundry Commision, the effected parties will present their case. The Muslim & non-Muslim contiguous areas will be separated and given to India & Pakistan, and other factors will be taken into account. 
    • Partition plan doesn’t talk about STATUS of Princely States (Bahawalpur, Patiala, Junagarh, KASHMIR, Kalat)
    • 23rd July 1947 – Punjab Assembly 
      • All Muslims (including Unionist Party) voted against Partition of Punjab 
      • All Hindus & Sikhs voted in favor of Partition of PUNJAB
    • 21st June 1947 – Bengal Assembly 
      • All Muslims voted against partition, all Hindus (except 1 or 2) voted in favor of Partition of BENGAL
  • British wanted to leave INDIA before it Explodes because of Communal Riots 
    • *YouTube (1:00:05 to 1:02:52): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JN2UQ2vv5iA&list=LLk0ZEFnOOCsw9rrN_Xjp59Q&index=2 
    • If British stayed till 30 June 1948 as stated by Clement Attlee (PM of UK) – British would have been held responsible for failure of Law & Order & Ultimately the Genocide of 1-2 Million (ordinary Hindu, Muslim & Sikhs)
      • That’s the reason why British left INDIA 11 months early in August 1947
    • In 1946 – Uprising in Indian Navy happened 
      • Few British Navy Officers were killed, few were taken as hostages  
  • Punjab Partition 1947
    • From July 1947 onwards – retaliation from Sikhs & Hindu mobs in East Punjab 
    • Maharaja of Patiala – played a huge role in Genocide of Muslims during the partition of Punjab 
  • Bengal Partition 1947 
    • Bengal was a Muslim majority province 
    • Congress – “if INDIA gets divided, then Bengal should also be divided on basis of religion” 
    • In Bengal – Congress took support of Hindu Mahasabha  
    • Jinnah was against the ‘Partition of Bengal’
      • Reason: In Bengal province, Calcutta was the only large city with Government Institutions & Infrastructure. Calcutta is a Hindu majority city (~74%), there is no chance Calcutta would be awarded to East Pakistan. 
  • 3rd June 1947 – Mountbatten said “India will be Partitioned, Punjab & Bengal will have a right through their assemblies to decide whether they want the Whole Province to go India or Pakistan” 
  • 11 August 1947 – Khan of Kalat declared Kalat as independent country 
    • Pakistan Military annexed Kalat
  • Jinnah’s 11 Aug 1947 speech (this speech contradicts 2 Nation Theory)
    • For liberals in Pakistan, it was a crucial speech in which Mr Jinnah spoke in the clearest possible terms of his dream that the country he was creating would be tolerant, inclusive and secular. 
    • Jinnah – “You are free. You are free to go to your temples, you are free to go to your mosques or to any other place of worship in this state of Pakistan,” Jinnah declared. “You may belong to any religion or caste or creed – that has nothing to do with the business of the state.
    • Decoding Jinnah’s 11 Aug 1947 Speech: Prof. Dr. Ishtiaq Ahmed – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TY2N6LWwc9M&list=LLk0ZEFnOOCsw9rrN_Xjp59Q&index=3 
      • *Actual Reason: If all the Muslims in India (30 million) were expelled, Pakistan would have collapsed in its inception. This is the reason why Jinnah gave that Secular Speech. 
  • KASHMIR 
    • Partition of India was ‘Partition of British India’, not the Princely States (ex: Kashmir, Bahawalpur, Hyderabad, Kalat, Patiala) 
  • British was not willing to give India complete Independence, it wanted India to be its Dominion 
    • 48:56 – 52:52  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2RTXqyI_clM 
    • 18th July 1947 – Indian Independence Act (passed in British Parliament) – 2 Independent Dominion (Pakistan & India) 
      • Princely States were ordered to negotiate either with India or Pakistan
  • History of West Punjab (present day Pakistan)
    • Sir Ganga Ram – civil engineer and architect – the father of modern Lahore 
    • Lahore – Paris of East 
      • Hindus & Sikhs were confident that Lahore will remain with India, but Lahore was given to Pakistan 
  • Radcliffe Award or Radcliffe Line 
    • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radcliffe_Line 

Punjab Division 

In Punjab 80% properties were owned by Hindus & Muslims. 75% revenue is generated by Hindus & Muslims. 

80% of Businesses were controlled by Hindus & Sikhs in LAHORE. Congress demanded – Lahore 

Sikhs demanded – Sialkot, Nankana Sahib, Gujranwala, Sahiwal (Montgomery), Faisalabad (Lyallpur), Lahore 

All of the above places were given to Pakistan 

*Radcliffe Line satisfies 99.9% of Muslim Leagues demands. Muslim League wanted Division of Punjab only based on Religion (they achieved what they want)  

  • 17 Aug 1947 – Redcliffe Award was made public (all HELL broke loose in Punjab) 
  • Role of Princely States in Ethnic Cleansing of ‘Unwanted Minorities’ 
    • Maharaja of Patiala & Kapurthala were involved in ethnic cleansing of Muslims in East Punjab 
    • Nawab of Bahawalpur – peacefully sent Hindu & Sikh minorities in his province (not involved in ethnic cleansing) 
  • Horrors of PARTITION 
    • Punjab 
      • Punjab population – 33.9 million 
      • 10 million Punjabis literally ran for their lives (ethnic cleansing happened on the both sides of Punjab)
      • 6 million people migrated from East Punjab (India) to Pakistan 
      • 4.5 million people migrated from West Punjab (Pakistan) to India 
      • 500,000 – 800,000 killed 
      • 90,000 women abducted (most of them raped)
      • Conclusion: More Muslims were killed in East Punjab then Hindus & Sikhs in West Punjab. 
    • PUNJAB was out of control 
      • March 1947 to end of June 1947 – communal riots in Muslim majority districts of Punjab (West)
      • From July 1947 till end of Dec 1947 – retaliatory attacks on Muslims in Hindu & Sikh majority districts of Punjab (East)
      • ~3 lakh Hindus & Sikhs killed in West Punjab 
      • ~5 lakh Muslims killed in East Punjab
    • Ethnic Cleansing of Muslims in East Punjab
      • Carried out in a much more organized way 
      • YouTube (till 51:00): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Yt5L4qAY2c 
      • From 9 Aug onwards – attack on Trains started 
      • Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Ferozepur in these cities of East Punjab Muslims were in majority 
      • These 2 reports admit ‘a very large scale massacre of Muslims has taken place in East Punjab’
        • Gurbaksh Singh Talib – SPGC report 
        • Justice GD Khosla report 
      • Sikh Leadership was involved in massacre 
      • Large scale massacre of Muslims happened in Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Patiala, and Kapurthala 
    • Kashmir 
      • Jammu massacre (October 1947 – November 1947) 20,000–50,000 Muslims killed 
      •  Mirpur massacre November 1947 (20,000+ Hindu/Sikh were killed)
      • Rajouri massacre (7 November 1947–12 April 1948) (30,000+ Hindu/Sikh were killed) 
    • Undivided India 
      • Total population 380 million 
      • 1-1.5 million killed 
      • 14-15 million crossed Radcliffe Line 
      • *If all the Muslims in India (30 million) were expelled, Pakistan would have collapsed in its inception 
    • Parents killed their daughters (they didn’t want their women gang-raped & butchered in hands of Muslim mobs) 
    • Worst form of Killings 
      • Spears (weapon) were inserted into Women’s Vagina  
      • Women’s breast were cut off 
      • People were burnt to death 
      • Children were beheaded 
    • * “Nobody died for Pakistan, a lot of people died because of Pakistan” – Moeenuddin Qureshi (Prime Minister Pakistan) 
    • *Partition of INDIA (Punjab, Bengal & Kashmir) is the ultimate defeat of all that is humane and good in Human Beings 
    • Jinnah 
      • None of Jinnah’s immediate family came to PAKISTAN (except his sister Fatima Jinnah)
      • Jinnah never visited any riot hit areas 
    • *At the END even Jinnah (Architect of 2 Nation Theory & eventually Partition of INDIA) seems to have regrated his decision of Partition 
      • Compulsory Watch (30:46 – 32:25) August 1947: The Parting of Ways – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NIC8pFJdL28&list=LLk0ZEFnOOCsw9rrN_Xjp59Q&index=3 
      • December 1947 (after partition) – In his address to All-India Muslim League Council Meeting in Karachi 
        • Jinnah – “I still consider myself to be an INDIAN. For the movement I have accepted the Governor-Generalship of Pakistan, but I am looking forward to a time when I would return to India and take my place as a citizen of My Country
        • Jinnah’s heart was not in his Government House in Karachi but in the beautiful mansion he had built for himself at Malabar Hill in Bombay. An authentic and fascinating account of this is given by Sri Prakasa, India’s first High Commissioner to Pakistan, in his memoirs Pakistan: Birth and Last Days (Meenakshi Prakashan; Meerut, 1965). In the aftermath of Partition, the governments of India and Pakistan had started acquiring evacuee properties left behind by those who migrated from one country to another. Out of goodwill, Prime Minister Nehru decided not to disturb the Jinnah House in Bombay. However, since there was a shortage of accommodation for consulates, the government directed Sri Prakasa to consult Jinnah’s wishes and the rent he wanted for letting it out. Jinnah, writes Sri Prakasa, was flabbergasted by the inquiry “and almost pleadingly said to me: “Sri Prakasa, don’t break my heart. Tell Jawaharlal not to break my heart. I have built it brick by brick. Who can live in a house like that? What fine verandahs? It is a small house fit only for a small European family or a refined Indian prince. You do not know how I love Bombay. I still look forward to going back there
  • 4 major mistakes of ‘Congress Party’ that led to the rise of ‘Muslim League -Jinnah’
    • Congress won elections in UP – 1937. Congress didn’t share power with Muslim League. 
    •  In 1936 speech Nehru promised abolition of ‘Zamindari and Jagirdari system’
    • Congress refused to support the British when WW2 started. 
    • Quit India Movement 
  • Muslims were overrepresented in Police & Army in United INDIA 
    • According to 1941 census – Muslims are 25% of Undivided India 
    • In British Indian Army Muslims are 38-42% 
    • In UP Muslims are 15% of population, 50% of police are Muslim
    • In Punjab Muslims are 57.1% of population, 73% of police are Muslim 
  • Conclusion 
    • *The reason why British could hold on to power for 200 years in Indian Sub-continent 
    • Finally, Jinnah’s vision of PAKISTAN (land of PURE(Muslims)) became reality. What next:
      • Zamindars & Jaghirdars (Feudal Lords) are happy 
  • Infact they played a vital role in CREATION OF PAKISTAN
  • Pakistan didn’t abolish Zamindari System, India abolished Zamindari System 
  • Mulla & Maulvi (Religious Clerics) are very very happy 
  • In 1974, a constitutional amendment deemed AHMADI Muslims as Non-Muslims 
    • Ahmadi Muslims played a vital role (politically & financially) in creation of Pakistan 
  • Pakistan Army (Military Industrial Complex) is Happy 
  • Shia genocide is happening in Pakistan 

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