Urban flooding is the inundation of property in a built environment, particularly in densely populated urban
areas, caused by intense rainfall which overwhelms the capacity of drainage.
It is significantly different from rural flooding as urbanisation leads to developed catchments which increases
the flood peaks from 1.8 to 8 times and flood volumes by up to 6 times. Consequently, flooding occurs very
quickly due to faster flow times, sometimes in a matter of minutes.
Urban flooding has wide ranging impacts:
o Damage to vital urban infrastructure causing disruptions in transport and power
o Loss of life and damage to property
o Risk of epidemics due to exposure to waterborne and vector borne infections
o Deterioration of water quality
o Economic losses due to disruption in industrial activity, supply chains etc
o Displacement of population in low lying areas
o Accidents and fires due to short circuit
It could be reduced by:
- Green roofs/rooftop gardens
- Create flood plains and overflow areas for rivers
- Separating rainwater from the sewer system
- Sustainable drainage: permeable pavement, sidewalks and gardens Integrated approach should be adopted for sustainable urban planning by empowering and educating Urban
Road map for future.
local Bodies should have say in decision making and planning of flood mitigation infrastructure. we should Focus on increasing the resilience of communities and adaptive capacity of our infrastructure is needed.
Urban design and planning should be water sensitive and take into consideration the topography, types of surfaces (pervious or impervious), natural drainage etc. Vulnerability analyses and risk assessments should form part and parcel of city master plans.
Disabling encroachment in sensitive zones through robust anti-encroachment laws and by providing adequate affordable housing can help reduce number of persons vulnerable to changing climate.
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