SALIENT FEATURES NEP 2020: COMMON FOR SCHOOL AND HIGHER EDUCATION
1.THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF THE POLICY:
•recognizing, identifying, and fostering the unique capabilities of each student, by sensitizing teachers as well as parents to promote each student’s holistic development in both academic and non-academic spheres.
•according the highest priority to achieving Foundational Literacy and Numeracy by all students by Grade 3.;
•flexibility, so that learners have the ability to choose their learning trajectories and programmes, and thereby choose their own paths in life according to their talents and interests;
•no hard separations between arts and sciences, between curricular and extra-curricular activities, between vocational and academic streams, etc. in order to eliminate harmful hierarchies among, and silos between different areas of learning.
•multidisciplinarity and a holistic education across the sciences, social sciences, arts, humanities, and sports for a multidisciplinary world in order to ensure the unity and integrity of all knowledge;
•emphasis on conceptual understanding rather than rote learning and learning-for-exams.;
•creativity and critical thinking to encourage logical decision-making and innovation;
•ethics and human & Constitutional values like empathy, respect for others, cleanliness, courtesy, democratic spirit, spirit of service, respect for public property, scientific temper, liberty, responsibility, pluralism, equality, and justice;
•promoting multilingualism and the power of language in teaching and learning;
•life skills such as communication, cooperation, teamwork, and resilience;
•focus on regular formative assessment for learning rather than the summative assessment that encourages today’s ‘coaching culture’;
•extensive use of technology in teaching and learning, removing language barriers, increasing access for Divyang students, and educational planning and management;
•respect for diversity and respect for the local context in all curriculum, pedagogy, and policy, always keeping in mind that education is a concurrent subject;
•full equity and inclusion as the cornerstone of all educational decisions to ensure that all students are able to thrive in the education system;
•synergy in curriculum across all levels of education from early childhood care and education to school education to higher education;
•teachers and faculty as the heart of the learning process – their recruitment, continuous professional development, positive working environments and service conditions;
•a ‘light but tight’regulatory framework to ensure integrity, transparency, and resource efficiency of the educational system through audit and public disclosure while encouraging innovation and out-of-the-box ideas through autonomy, good governance, and empowerment;
•outstanding research as a corequisite for outstanding education and development;
•continuous review of progress based on sustained research and regular assessment by educational experts;
•a rootedness and pride in India, and its rich, diverse, ancient and modern culture and knowledge systems and traditions.
•education is a public service; access to quality education must be considered a basic right of every child;
•substantial investment in a strong, vibrant public education system as well as the encouragement and facilitation of true philanthropic private and community participation.
2.THE VISION OF THIS POLICY
•An education system rooted in Indian ethos that contributes directly to transforming India, that is Bharat, sustainably into an equitable and vibrant knowledge society, by providing high-quality education to all, and thereby making India a global knowledge superpower.
•The curriculum and pedagogy of our institutions must develop a deep sense of respect towards the fundamental duties and Constitutional values, bonding with one’s country, and a conscious awareness of one’s roles and responsibilities in a changing world.
•To instill a deep-rooted pride in being Indian, not only in thought, but also in spirit, intellect, and deeds, as well as to develop knowledge, skills, values, and dispositions that support responsible commitment to human rights, sustainable development and living, and global well-being, thereby reflecting a truly global citizen.
3.TECHNOLOGY USE AND INTEGRATION
•An autonomous body, the National Educational Technology Forum (NETF), will be created to provide a platform for the free exchange of ideas on the use of technology to enhance learning, assessment, planning, administration, and so on, both for school and higher education. (Para 23.3)
•The NETF will have the following functions: (Para 23.3)
a.provide independent evidence-based advice to Central and State Government agencies on technology-based interventions;
a.build intellectual and institutional capacities in educational technology;
b.envision strategic thrust areas in this domain; and
c.articulate new directions for research and innovation.
•The thrust of technological interventions will be for: (Para 23.5)
•improving teaching-learning and evaluation processes,
•supporting teacher preparation and professional development,
•enhancing educational access, and
•streamlining educational planning, management, and administration including processes related to admissions, attendance, assessments, etc.
•A rich variety of educational software, for all the above purposes, will be developed and made available for students and teachers at all levels. All such software will be available in all major Indian languages and will be accessible to a wide range of users including students in remote areas and Divyang students. (Para 23.6)
•This policy has been formulated at a time when an unquestionably disruptive technology -Artificial Intelligence (AI) 3D/7D Virtual Reality – has emerged. One of the permanent tasks of the NETF will be to categorize emergent technologies based on their potential and estimated timeframe for disruption, and to periodically present this analysis to MHRD. Based on these inputs, MHRD will formally identify those technologies whose emergence demands responses from the education system. (Para 23.8)
•HEIs will play an active role not only in conducting research on disruptive technologies but also in creating initial versions of instructional materials and courses including online courses in cutting-edge domains and assessing their impact on specific areas such as professional education. (Para 23.10)
•Universities will aim to offer Ph.D. and Masters programmes in core areas such as Machine Learning as well as multidisciplinary fields “AI + X” and professional areas like health care, agriculture, and law. (Para 23.11)
•HEIs may also offer targeted training in low-expertise tasks for supporting the AI value chain such as data annotation, image classification, and speech transcription. (Para 23.11)
•Efforts to teach languages to school students will be dovetailed with efforts to enhance Natural Language Processing for India’s diverse languages. (Para 23.11)
•For school education, teaching-learning e-content will continue to be developed by all States in all regional languages, as well as by the NCERT, CIET, CBSE, NIOS, and other bodies/institutions, and will be uploaded onto the DIKSHA platform. (Para 23.6)
•CIET will be strengthened to promote and expand DIKSHA as well as other education technology initiatives. (Para 23.6)
•Suitable equipment will be made available to teachers at schools so that teachers can suitably integrate e-contents into teaching-learning practices. (Para 23.6)
4.ONLINE AND DIGITAL EDUCATION: ENSURING EQUITABLE USE OF TECHNOLOGY (Para 24.4)
•Pilot studies for online education: Appropriate agencies, such as the NETF, CIET, NIOS, IGNOU, IITs, NITs, etc. will be identified to conduct pilot studies, to evaluate the benefits of integrating education with online education.
•Digital infrastructure: Need to invest in creation of open, interoperable, evolvable, public digital infrastructure in the education sector to solve for India’s scale, diversity, complexity and device penetration.
•Online teaching platform and tools: Appropriate existing e-learning platforms such as SWAYAM, DIKSHA, will be extended to provide teachers with a structured, user-friendly, rich set of assistive tools for monitoring progress of learners.
•Content creation, digital repository, and dissemination: A digital repository of content including creation of coursework, Learning Games & Simulations, Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality will be developed.
•Addressing the digital divide: The existing mass media, such as television, radio, and community radio will be extensively used for 24/7 telecast and broadcasts in different languages.
•Virtual Labs: Existing e-learning platforms to be leveraged for creating virtual labs.
•Training and incentives for teachers: Teachers will undergo rigorous training in learner-centric pedagogy and on how to become high-quality online content creators themselves.
•Online assessment and examinations: designing and implementation of online assessment frameworks encompassing competencies, portfolio, rubrics, standardized assessments, and assessment analytics.
•Blended models of learning: Different effective models of blended learning will be identified for appropriate replication for different subjects.
•Laying down standards: NETF and other appropriate bodies shall set up standards of content, technology, and pedagogy for online/digital teaching-learning.
•Creating a Dedicated Unit for Building of World Class, Digital Infrastructure, Educational Digital Content and Capacity: A dedicated unit for the purpose of orchestrating the building of digital infrastructure, digital content and capacity building will be created in the Ministry to look after the e-education needs of both school and higher education. (Para 24.5)
5.STRENGTHENING THE CENTRAL ADVISORY BOARD OF EDUCATION
•Strengthening and empowering the Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) for developing, articulating, evaluating, and revising the vision of education in the country on a continuous basis, in close collaboration with MHRD and the corresponding apex bodies of States. (Para 25.1)
•To bring the focus back on education and learning, it is desirable that the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) be re-designated as the Ministry of Education (MoE). (Para 25.3)
6.FINANCING: AFFORDABLE AND QUALITY EDUCATION FOR ALL
•Policy unequivocally endorses and envisions a substantial increase in public investment in education by both the Central government and all State Governments. The Centre and the States will work together to increase the public investment in Education sector to reach 6% of GDP at the earliest. (Para 26.2)
•In particular, financial support will be provided to various critical elements and components of education, such as ensuring universal access, learning resources, nutritional support, matters of student safety and well-being, adequate numbers of teachers and staff, teacher development, and support for all key initiatives towards equitable high-quality education for underprivileged and socio-economically disadvantaged groups. (Para 26.3)
•In addition to one-time expenditures, primarily related to infrastructure and resources, this Policy identifies the following key long-term thrust areas for financing to cultivate an education system: (a) universal provisioning of quality early childhood care education; (b) ensuring foundational literacy and numeracy; (c) providing adequate and appropriate resourcing of school complexes/clusters; (d) providing food and nutrition (breakfast and midday meals); (e) investing in teacher education and continuing professional development of teachers; (f) revamping colleges and universities to foster excellence; (g) cultivating research; and (h) extensive use of technology and online education. (Para 26.4)
•The implementation of this Policy will be led by various bodies including MHRD, CABE, Union and State Governments, education-related Ministries, State Departments of Education, Boards, NTA, the regulatory bodies of school and higher education, NCERT, SCERTs, schools, and HEIs along with timelines and a plan for review (Para 27.1)
•Implementation will be guided by the following principles: (Para 27.2)
•Implementation of the spirit and intent of the Policy will be the most critical matter.
•It is important to implement the policy initiatives in a phased manner
•Prioritization will be important in ensuring optimal sequencing of policy points, and that the most critical and urgent actions are taken up first, thereby enabling a strong base.
•Comprehensiveness in implementation will be key; as this Policy is interconnected and holistic, only a full-fledged implementation, and not a piecemeal one, will ensure that the desired objectives are achieved.
•Since education is a concurrent subject, it will need careful planning, joint monitoring, and collaborative implementation between the Centre and States. Sixth, timely infusion of requisite resources – human, infrastructural, and financial – at the Central and State levels will be crucial for the satisfactory execution of the Policy.
•Careful analysis and review of the linkages including early investment in some of the specific actions (such as the setting up of early childhood care and education infrastructure) that will be imperative for ensuring a strong base and a smooth progression for all subsequent programmes and actions.
•Subject-wise implementation committees of experts in cooperation and consultation with other relevant Ministries will be set up at both the Central and State levels to develop detailed implementation plans for each aspect of this Policy (Para 27.3)
•Yearly joint reviews of the progress of implementation of the policy, in accordance with the targets set for each action, will be conducted by designated teams constituted by MHRD and the States, and reviews will be shared with CABE. (Para 27.3)
•In the decade of 2030-40, the entire policy will be in an operational mode, following which another comprehensive review will be undertaken. (Para 27.3)
FOCUS ON SPORTS, PHYSICAL HEALTH AND WELL-BEING
•multidisciplinarity and a holistic education across the sciences, social sciences, arts, humanities, and sports for a multidisciplinary world in order to ensure the unity and integrity of all knowledge; (In Introduction under Principles of this policy)
•In all stages, experientiallearning will be adopted, including hands-on learning, arts-integrated and sports-integrated education, story-telling-based pedagogy, among others, as standard pedagogy within each subject. (para 4.6)
•States may look into innovative methods to achieve these aims of greater flexibility and exposure to and enjoyment of a wider range of subjects, including across the arts, sciences, humanities, languages, sports, and vocational subjects. (para 4.10)
•Certain subjects, skills, and capacities should be learned by all students to become good, successful, innovative, adaptable, and productive human beings in today’s rapidly changing world. These skills include: health and nutrition; physical education, fitness, wellness, and sports (para 4.23)
•Bagless days will be encouraged throughout the year for various types of enrichment activities involving arts, quizzes, sports, and vocational crafts. (para 4,26)
•Project-based Clubs and Circles will be encouraged and supported at the levels of schools, school complexes, districts, and beyond. Examples include Science Circles, Math Circles, Music & Dance Performance Circles, Chess Circles, Poetry Circles, Language Circles, Drama Circles, Debate Circles, Sports Circles, Eco-Clubs, Health & Well-being Clubs/ Yoga Clubs and so on. (para 4.44)
•Departments in Languages, Literature, Music, Philosophy, Indology, Art, Dance, Theatre, Education, Mathematics, Statistics, Pure and Applied Sciences, Sociology, Economics, Sports, Translation and Interpretation, and other such subjects needed for a multidisciplinary, stimulating Indian education and environment will be established and strengthened at all HEIs. (para 11.7)
•In HEIs along with providing suitable resources and infrastructure, such as quality libraries, classrooms, labs, technology, sports/recreation areas, student discussion spaces, and dining areas, a number of initiatives will be required to ensure that learning environments are engaging and supportive, and enable all students to succeed. (para 12.1)
•all HEIs will have mechanisms and opportunities for funding of topic-centred clubs and activities organized by students with the help of faculty and other experts as needed, such as clubs and events dedicated to science, mathematics, poetry, language, literature, debate, music, sports, etc. (para 12.3)
•students will be given plenty of opportunities for participation in sports, culture/arts clubs, eco-clubs, activity clubs, community service projects, etc. (para 12.9)
FOCUS ON SKILL DEVELOPMENT
•Scope of school education will be broadened to facilitate multiple pathways to learning involving both formal and non-formal education modes. (Para 3.5)
•Students will be given increased flexibility and choice of subjects to study, particularly in secondary school – including subjects in physical education, the arts and crafts, and vocational skills (Para 4.9)
•There will be no hard separation among ‘curricular’, ‘extracurricular’, or ‘co-curricular’, among ‘arts’, ‘humanities’, and ‘sciences’, or between ‘vocational’or ‘academic’streams. (Para 4.9)
•Subjects such as physical education, the arts and crafts, and vocational skills, in addition to science, humanities, and mathematics, will be incorporated throughout the school curriculum. (Para 4.9)
•By 2025, at least 50% of learners through the school and higher education system shall have exposure to vocational education (Para 16.5)
•Beginning with vocational exposure at early ages in middle and secondary school, quality vocational education will be integrated smoothly into higher education. (Para 16.4)
•Every child to learn at least one vocation and exposed to several more. (Para 16.4)
•Sampling of important vocational crafts, such as carpentry, electric work, metal work, gardening, pottery making, etc., as decided by States and local communities during Grades 6-8.(Para 4.26)
•A 10-day bagless period sometime during Grades 6-8 to intern with local vocational experts such as carpenters, gardeners, potters, artists, etc. .(Para 4.26)
•Similar internship opportunities to learn vocational subjects to students throughout Grades 6-12, including holiday periods. .(Para 4.26)
•Vocational courses through online mode will also be made available. (Para 16.6)
•Vocational education will be integrated in the educational offerings of all secondary schools in a phased manner over the next decade. Towards this, secondary schools will also collaborate with ITIs, polytechnics, local industry, etc. Skill labs will also be set up (Para 16.5)
•Higher education institutions will offer vocational education either on their own or in partnership with industry and NGOs. (Para 16.5)
•Vocational courses will also be available to students enrolled in all other Bachelor’s degree programmes, including the 4-year multidisciplinary Bachelor’s programmes. (Para 16.5)
•HEIs will also be allowed to conduct short-term certificate courses in various skills including soft skills. ‘Lok Vidya’, i.e., important vocational knowledge developed in India, will be made accessible to students through integration into vocational education courses. (Para 16.5)
•MHRD will constitute a National Committee for the Integration of Vocational Education (NCIVE), consisting of experts in vocational education and representatives from across Ministries, in collaboration with industry,to oversee this effort. (Para 16.5)
•The National Skills Qualifications Framework will be detailed further for each discipline, vocation and profession. (Para 16.8)
•Indian standards will be aligned with the International Standard Classification of Occupations maintained by the International Labour Organization. (Para 16.8)
•This Framework will provide the basis for Recognition of Prior Learning. Through this, dropouts from the formal system will be reintegrated by aligning their practical experience with the relevant level of the Framework. The credit-based Framework will also facilitate mobility across ‘general’ and vocational education. (Para 16.8)
ETHICS and VALUES
•The curriculum and pedagogy of our institutions must develop a deep sense of respect towards the fundamental duties and Constitutional values, bonding with one’s country, and a conscious awareness of one’s roles and responsibilities in a changing world. (Vision)
•To instill a deep-rooted pride in being Indian, not only in thought, but also in spirit, intellect, and deeds, as well as to develop knowledge, skills, values, and dispositions that support responsible commitment to human rights, sustainable development and living, and global well-being, thereby reflecting a truly global citizen. (Vision)
•Aim of education will not only be cognitive development, but also building character and creating holistic and well-rounded individuals equipped with the key 21st century skills. (Para 4.4)
•Specific sets of skills and values across domains will be identified for integration and incorporation at each stage of learning, from pre-school to higher education. (Para 4.4)
•Certain subjects, skills, and capacities will be emphasized in school: such as, scientific temper and evidence-based thinking; creativity and innovativeness; sense of aesthetics and art; oral and written communication; health and nutrition; physical education, fitness, wellness, and sports; collaboration and teamwork; problem solving and logical reasoning; vocational exposure and skills; digital literacy, coding, and computational thinking; ethical and moral reasoning; etc.(Para 4.23)
•Students will be given a logical framework for making ethical decisions at a young age. (Para 4.28)
•In later years, this would then be expanded along themes of cheating, violence, plagiarism, littering, tolerance, equality, empathy, etc., with a view to enabling children to embrace moral/ethical values in conducting one’s life (Para 4.28)
•Traditional Indian values and all basic human and Constitutional values will be developed in all students. (Para 4.28)
•Excerpts from the Indian Constitution will also be considered essential reading for all students. (Para 4.28)
•Basic training in health, including preventive health, mental health, good nutrition, personal and public hygiene, disaster response and first-aid will also be included in the curriculum, as well as scientific explanations of the detrimental and damaging effects of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs. (Para 4.28)
•All B.Ed. programmes will also emphasize the practice of the Fundamental Duties (Article 51A) of the Indian Constitution along with other Constitutional provisions while teaching any subject or performing any activity. It will also appropriately integrate environmental awareness and sensitivity towards its conservation and sustainable development, so that environment education becomes an integral part of school curricula.(Para 5.24)
•The school curriculum will include, early on, material on human values such as respect for all persons, empathy, tolerance, human rights, gender equality, non-violence, global citizenship, inclusion, and equity. It would also include more detailed knowledge of various cultures, religions, languages, gender identities, etc. to sensitize and develop respect for diversity. (para 6.20)
•Quality higher education must aim to develop good, thoughtful, well-rounded,and creative individuals. (Para 9.1.1)
•It must enable an individual to study one or more specialized areas of interest at a deep level, and also develop character, ethical and Constitutional values, intellectual curiosity, scientific temper, creativity, spirit of service, and 21stcentury capabilities across a range of disciplines including sciences, social sciences, arts, humanities, languages, as well as professional, technical, and vocational subjects. (Para 9.1.1)
•A holistic and multidisciplinary education would aim to develop all capacities of human beings -intellectual, aesthetic, social, physical, emotional, and moral in an integrated manner. (Para 11.3)
•Curricula of all HEIs shall include credit-based courses and projects in the areas of community engagement and service, environmental education, and value-based education. (Para 11.8)
•Concerted curricular and pedagogical initiatives, including the introduction of contemporary subjects such as Artificial Intelligence, Design Thinking, Holistic Health, Organic Living, Environmental Education, Global Citizenship Education (GCED),etc. at relevant stages will be undertaken to develop these various important skills in students at all levels. (Para 4.24)
•“Knowledge of India” will include knowledge from ancient India and its contributions to modern India and its successes and challenges, and a clear sense of India’s future aspirations with regard to education, health, environment, etc. These elements will be incorporated in an accurate and scientific manner throughout the school curriculum wherever relevant. (Para 4.27)
•Constitutional values (such as seva, ahimsa, swachchhata, satya, nishkam karma, shanti, sacrifice, tolerance, diversity, pluralism, righteous conduct, gender sensitivity, respect for elders, respect for all people and their inherent capabilities regardless of background, respect for environment, helpfulness, courtesy, patience, forgiveness, empathy, compassion, patriotism, democratic outlook, integrity, responsibility, justice, liberty, equality, and fraternity) will be developed in all students.(Para 4.28)
•Access to downloadable and printable versions of all textbooks will be provided by all States/UTs and NCERT to help conserve the environment and reduce the logistical burden.(Para 4.32)
•Environment education will include areas such as climate change, pollution, waste management, sanitation, conservation of biological diversity, management of biological resources and biodiversity, forest and wildlife conservation, and sustainable development and living. (Para 11.8)
•Curricula of all HEIs shall include credit-based courses and projects in the areas of community engagement and service, environmental education, and value-based education. (Para 11.8)
•Other disruptive technologies that are expected to change the way we live, and, therefore, change the way we educate students, include those relating to clean and renewable energy, water conservation, sustainable farming, environmental preservation, and other green initiatives; these will also receive prioritized attention in education. (Para 23.13)
•All B.Ed. programmes will also emphasize the practice of the Fundamental Duties (Article 51A) of the Indian Constitution along with other Constitutional provisions while teaching any subject or performing any activity.It will also appropriately integrate environmental awareness and sensitivity towards its conservation and sustainable development, so that environment education becomes an integral part of school curricula. (Para 5.24)
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