Nawab Kapur Singh (1697-1753) is among the most respected leader who shaped the martial ability, organizational structure and administrative establishment of Sikh. He was a great institution builder and organizer

The Sikh Empire owes a lot to him in its formative age. Nawab Kapur Singh was born in a Jat Virk family in a village called Kaloke in Sheikhupura district of Punjab in 1697.

Sikh leadership had two big losses in a very short span of time – Guru Gobind Singh Jee in 1708 and Banda Bahadur Jee in 1716, which had left an instant vacuum to the leadership. Nawab Kapur Singh moulded himself in his early twenties to occupy the leadership position. Kapur Singh Jee had his Amrit initiation ceremony on pious day of Baisakhi in 1721 at Amritsar. 

Nawab Kapur Singh as Planner, Organizer and Administrator.

Formation of the Dal Khalsa

Nawab Kapur Singh left no time in bringing and organizing the Sikhs scattered across the length and breadth of northwestern India. Sikh were those days a martial class yet unorganized and split into small Jathas. And Kapur Singh jee ensured that all of them merged into one unit called Dal Khalsa (a central warrior unit.) The Dal Khalsa was divided into two sections –

Budha Dal- Veteran Warriors

Tarun Dal – Young Warriors

Assignments were defined, wartime and peacetime roles were classified. The Dal Khalsa united and reignited the Sikh warriors for their next war mission. So, until now when the Sikh forces had been scattered into nearly 65 jathas (bands), Kapur Singh jee reorganized them into twelve bands and the band were now identified by the name Misl. And each Misl was assigned with its own flag, banner, drum, and Insignia.

Rise of the Misls

Nawab Kapur Singh jee anointed Sardar Hari Singh to lead Tarun Dal who labored to see the Tarun Dal augment in number and expand its base. In no time it swelled to 12000. And then Kapoor Singh jee split it into five segments, each led by an able leader.

First BatchBaba Deep Singh Shaheed,
Second batchKaram Singh and Dharam Singh,
Third BatchKahan singh and Binod Singh of Goindwal,
Forth BatchDasaundha Singh of Kot Budha
Fifth BatchVir Singh Ranghreta and Jivan Singh Ranghreta.

In course of time with an ever-expanding Tarun Dal, other seven segments were carved out, and thus the foundations of the Great Sikh empire was set up.

This total 12 Misls together ensured to clean the northwestern India from Mughal and Afghan in coming decades spread in the territory from Trans Yamuna to Tran Indus regions, which culminated into Hari Singh Nalwa jee in later days hoisting flag of Khalsa in Peshwar under the Great leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh Jee.

A student of Management should study and understand how network is created multiplied, objective and role is defined, disciplined and motivation is immortalized and Kingdom and welfare state is created. Sikh Empire is worthy story to be retold again and again to the posterity.

1734 – War with Mughals

Kapoor Singh Jee was a great strategist. He ensured to cut off the Mughal connect between Lahore and Delhi and hence led at open war with one Zakaria Khan a Mughal leader of Lahore.

Sikhs warriors were called upon to assemble from Shivalik Hills and Lakhi Jungle and from deserts of Rajasthan to challenge the first fortress at Amritsar and after a ferocious battle Guru City was cleaned from Mughal. Most of the Mughal were killed and rest fled to Lahore.

The Mughal Governor at Lahore Zakaria Khan sent a huge force under one Samad Khan, but such was the trap strategized at Amritsar that Samad Khan was also killed and the entire army of Mughal was decimated. Sikhs did not stop here.  A small band of mere 2000 Sikhs made an audacious attempt to attack Mughals at Lahore. To the good luck of the Mughals, the governor did not turn up on that day at the Badshahi Mosque which saved his life. But the sudden attack and retreating battalion ravaged the Mughal area and command totally in and around Lahore.  

Mughal Surrender and offer truce

Alarmed at this sudden mobilization and ferocity, Mughals at Delhi on the insistence of Zakaria Khan (Lahore) offered a truce with a Title of Nawab and Three Parganas of Land under the control of Nawab Kapoor Singh.

The offering of Truce and the robe of honor sent by Mughal were submitted at the feet of Panj Piara and amongst them were the revered Baba Deep Singh, Scholar Bhai Karam Singh and the legendary Bhai Buddh Singh (great-great-grandfather of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. By now the Sikh territorial control was visible from Karnal to Mohali to Amritsar bordering Lahore.

1735- War with Mughals

In those days, the truce was temporary, and the war was permanent. Very next year the deceptive Mughals attacked from western flank towards Amritsar and Malwa. Sikh had their own share of loss and one such significant loss was termed as Chhota Ghallooghaaraa where Mughal army had inflicted losses upon the Sikh Army. However, the Spirit of Khalsa was ever immortal and in no time the Misl and Tarun Dal were mobilized and the defeat was avenged. The Mughal were first decimated at Sirhind and the retreating Mughals were again chased and cleansed from Amritsar. The commander Jamal Khan and Tatat Khan were killed in this process.

Nadir Shah – 1739.

During the summer of 1739, the retreating forces of Nadir Shah, a Persian invader, was attacked frequently from its rear end from Malwa up to the way to Akhnoor. The repeated Sikh attacks led them to relieve themselves of a majority of the war booty and captive bodies. There were huge casualties on the side of the invaders, it was only the frontal wing of invader who could sprint away to safety.  Nawab Kapoor Singh jee along the side of Jassa Singh Ahluwalia could inflict so much damage that Persian could never return to India thereafter.

Indian left historians while writing this part of history has deceitfully forgotten the heroic swooping of the Sikh warriors causing so much of loss to the Persians. They reassembled more as courtiers to the Mughals Instead of man of knowledge. The loss of Kohinoor diamond as a war booty is around where entire history was written and falsification was institutionalized by singing songs of praise for Persian Invader.

Nawab Kapoor Singh Jee is remembered as an able administrator and great institution builder.

Due to his old age, he suggested Jassa Singh Ahluwalia to be made supreme commander of Dal Khalsa. He finally set for his heavenly abode in the year 1753 in the Amritsar.

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