Tarek Fateh, Popular Canadian Author postulated “Pakistan is a State of Mind” theory gives one side of the story of Pakistan in my opinion. Even Venkat Dhulipala’s argument of Pakistan as New Madina also partially true for Pakistan and the Muslims migrated to the areas that formed Pakistan from Current day India reaffirms New Medina definition as these migrants termed their movement to Pakistan as Hijrat and called themselves Muhajirs. The Hijrat in the Quran refers to the 622 CE migration of the Prophet from Mecca to Medina and the people who accompanied the Prophet were called Muhajirs.
But in my opinion, The Pakistan project has another dimension that is the desire of Muslim Aristocracy especially Shia Landlords to restore the Mohammaden rule over the Indian Subcontinent which they lost to Peshwas and British in the 18th and the 19th Centuries or at least restoration of their rule over Awadh(Oudh). This Idea is quite in contrast to the Indian National Congress Idea of Post British India which is reclaiming of India that we lost to Invaders in 1100 CE and other significant difference that comes to my mind is an idea about post-British India, Muslims idea of India talks about continuing of Islam supremacy over Hindus or at least to have equal claim over Hindustan with Hindus while INC idea was more inclusive which talks about Indians, not as Hindus and Muslims and this idea was best expressed by none other than Gandhiji. Here is an excerpt from Facts are Facts
” The objective before me was not just to attain freedom, but also to remove all the social ills in the society which had festered during the 200 years of the British rule. They have practically divested us of our traditions of tolerance and harmony, and, instead, fomented hatred and discord through their communal policies. I had thought that we could change the entire system and people of this country and would live together like brothers, in love, harmony, and peace, so that coming generations may be blessed with all of that, which, thanks to the British, we have been deprived of”
Ref: Gandhiji to Wali Khan, Son of Badshah Khan during his stay in Srinagar after Independence (Excerpt from Facts are Facts, p162-163)
In United Provinces Assembly, Hindus and Muslims shared seats at a 50:50 ratio where the Muslim Population in UP was always less than 20%. Justice Javed Iqbal, Son of Mohammed Iqbal, and Historian Ayesha Jalal’s argument about Jinnah’s idea of Pakistan also proves my point. Ayesha Jalal says, Jinnah’s Pakistan is not a separate sovereign state but a power-sharing arrangement between Muslim League with Congress in the Indian Government.
Here we must discuss an Interesting Personality named Rajasaheb of Mahabubabad who was the principal benefactor for Jinnah and was one of the founding members of the Muslim League and was a member of the team headed by Prince Agakhan argued for separate Hindu Muslim Electorates with British hadn’t sold his property in Mahabubabad thinking that his team plans for Pakistan would succeed and he can retain his property and hold over his state Mahabubabad. The same logic applies to even Mr. Jinnah, who also retained his estate in Bombay(now Mumbai) thinking that He can have cake and eat it too.
Muslim League’s inability to explain the Do Quami Nazarian (Two Nations Theory) as it was too esoteric for Muslim Masses who are illiterate and Poor and had deep roots in Indian Society. It had only 7 years from its Demand for Pakistan to Pakistan always had very weak leadership who depended heavily on Jamindars and Moulvis to propagate political messages failed to explain about its plans about Pakistan. its usage of Quam in Urdu confused its own people as that word has many synonyms which include not only Religion but also Ethnicity. You can observe this issue in Currant Pakistan where Sindhis calling themselves as Sindhi Quam or Baloch Quom or Muhajir Quom
But the real problem is with the Indian Army portion that went to Pakistan was entirely made of Muslims and the majority of them were from the West Punjab area. They had a different idea about their new country and the Muslim League leadership which was mainly comprised of Landlords and not ready for partition missed an opportunity to propagate its definition of Pakistan to its own Army. The Army fresh from the 2nd World war and with wounds of Partition assigned to a country in which the Majority of Population are Muslims believed that it is an Army of Islam not the Army of Pakistan and believed that it has the mandate to restore the Islamic rule over entire Indian Peninsula not just in the areas consisting of West and East Pakistan.
It may be noted that the entire first-generation leadership of the Muslim League was Shia but the Army they got was mainly Sunni derived from Peasant Castes of Punjab. This artificial arrangement between Shia Rulers and Sunni Army lasted a very short time ended with the ascent of Field Marshal Ayub Khan as Chief Martial Law Administrator. Also to be noted was the eagerness of Iran to recognize Pakistan as it thought a Muslim country would work as a buffer against future invasions from India. It never reconciled to the loss of its own Shia Persian rule over Oudh and recognized this new country within four hours of its birth. Don’t forget Parisians lost control over Oudh in 1857 to the British and have read some stories about Sunni reluctance to fight for Shias in that period.
The selection of Urdu as the national language of Pakistan which had Bengali Speaking Muslims as the Majority indicates the objectives of the Pakistani State. One more pattern to be noted is Pakistan Army’s response to the Communal violence in India be it is Gujarat of 2002 or Delhi 2020. It never cares to explain its atrocities on Bengalis, Baloch, and Sindhis to its people but show extreme care for the communal incidents in UP, Bihar, and MP as it feels that the Muslims in these areas are crucial for its plan to restore the glory of Muslim Rule. I remember reading an article on this issue in Thenews.Com.PK a few years back.
So, We have to treat this army as the Islamic Rebel Army aiming to fight for the restoration of Islamic rule over India not alone as an army of the sovereign state of Pakistan. In my opinion, Pakistan Army seldom shows its affection for its civilians and often displays extreme contempt for political leaders from its provinces. I feel these rebels aka Army occupied landmass of areas of the current day Pakistan is in waiting for an opportune time to launch their Gazwa on Hindustan. So Treatment of the Pakistan Army as Rebels not as Sovereign State Army gives us the correct perspective of Pakistan

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