A chronological Chart of the History of Kashmir based on Kalhana’s Rajatarangini (1148-1149 A.D.)

The first volume of Kalhana’s narrative begins with Yudhisthira and finishes with Gonanda I (accession assumed Kali Samvat 653, Lankika S.626). 75 kings’ total reign time has been calculated to be 2268 years.

Sardhimati-Aryaraja and Pratapaditya I are the first and last verses of Book II of the Kalhana. The total length of the reigns throughout this time is 192 years.

Meghavahana is the protagonist of the third novel, which finishes with Baladitya. The total number of years spent in power throughout this time is

589, with 300 of those years being attributed to Ranaditya alone.

The Lost Kings:

1. Gonanda I

A relative of Jarasandha, king of Magadha. Killed by Balabhadra, the brother of

Krishna. Reigned for 17 years.

2. Damodara I

Killed by Krishna. Reigned for 13 years.

3. Yasovanti

Wife of Damodara IReigned for 15 years.

4. Damodara II

Son of Yasovanti and Damodara. Killed by his Prime Minister Harnadeva

Reigned for 40 years.

Kalhana mentions the king as Kubera’s friend and that Guhyakas obeyed him.

Possible reference to the riches he earned

Pandava Dynasty

5. Harnadeva

Grandson of Arjuna. Reigned for 30 years.

6. Ramadeva

Married the daughter of Shiva Rai, ruler of Gandhara. Reigned for 69 years.

7. Vyasadeva

Married Kalabhawani daughter of king Jaswant of Marwar. Reigned for 56 years.

8. Druna

His wife Margidevi built the temple of Margeshvara in the village of Kuther.

Reigned for 58 years.

9. Simhadeva

Village Simhpur was founded by him. Reigned for 54 years.

10. Gopaldeva

The Chief of Kashgar was the brother-in-law of Vijayananda. The Chief of Khuttan won the war with the Chief of Kashgar and Reigned for 13 years and 3 months.

11. Vijayananda

Younger brother of Gopaldeva. Won back Kashgar. Defeated Khuttan.

Built the temple of Vijayeshvara at Bijbihara. Reigned for 25 years.

12. Sukhadeva

Son of Gopaldeva. Lost territories in Punjab to the king of Delhi, Chitrath. Also, lost Turkistan. Murdered while hunting in the mountains of Amarnath by drawing in the Liddar river by Rama Nanda, son of Vijayananda. Reigned for 44 years.

13. Rama Nanda

Subjugated ruler of Jammu. Reigned for 57 years.

14. Sandiman

Son of Rama Nanda. Founder the city at a place which is now the bed of Wular

Lake, known as Sandimatnagar (still known as Salabatnagar). Built the temple of Zeshteshvara. Invaded territories as far as Kanauj. Married Partidevi, the daughter of the King of Kandahar. She died at Attock, on way to Kashmir when her boat capsized. Reigned for 65 years.

15. Marhandeva, and

16. Kamandeva

● Marhandeva and Kamandeva were sons of Sandiman. In their hostility, the country got divided into two. South-Eastern went to Marhandeva and North-Eastern to Kamandeva.

● Karmandeva founded the village named Marhama.

● Kamandeva (unjust king) made Sandimatnagar his capital. A comet appeared that year. In the same year, the rains were heavy. Also, a huge snake appeared at Chakdar which died but its carcass stayed for a year.

● Based on the divisions made by the two kings Kashmir is still divided

into Maraj and Manraj. Marhandeva reigned for 55 years.

17. Chandardeva

● Son of Marhandeva. Killed Kamandeva.

● A debauch king, he had 360 wives, one for each lunar day.

● Reigned for 52 years.

18. Ananda

● Brother of Chandardeva. Cruel king.

● Reigned for 28 years.

19. Drupadadeva

● Son of Ananda. Kind king.

● Built the temple of Jwalamukhi in the village of Shar.

● Killed by brother Harnamdeva with an arrow to the eye.

20. Harnamdeva

● Unjust king who was almost defeated by his commander-in-chief named Durga.

● Durga almost defeated Harnamdeva but people backed Harnamdeva and helped defeat Durga.

● Repentant Harnamdeva remitted two years’ revenue. Later Durga’s son named Rangu killed Harnamdeva while he was on a hunting expedition.

● Reigned for 39 years.

21. Sulkandeva

● Son of Harnamdeva.

● Pleasure-loving King worked only on Saturdays.

● Reigned for 28 years.

22. Sinaditya

● The foolish king who paid ten million dinars for a celestial virgin.

● Killed in bed by his brother Mangaladitya.

● Reigned for 17 years.

23. Mangaladitya

● A bad ruler.

● In his time a mist appeared during inhalation which caused many deaths.

● Reigned for 39 years.

24. Khimdendra

● Son of Mangaladitya.

● Killed by minister Druna for outraging the modesty of his wife.

● Reigned for 66 years.

25. Bhimsena

● Son of Khimdendra. Unjust king.

● Built the temple of Koteshvara on Jhelum bank and founded the village of Simpur.

● Reigned for 61 years and 7 months.

26. Indrasena

● Son of Bhimsena. Unjust king.

● Reigned for 46 years.

27. Sundarsena

● Son of Indrasena.

● Sandimatnagar drowned due to the earthquake as prophesied by Nanda

Gupta. Only a potter survived and took refuge at Kralasangar hillock.

● The earthquake also created the Khadanyar hillock at Baramulla.

● Reigned for 41 years. End of the Pandava dynasty

Kashmir was kingless for 2 months. Survivors of the flood elected Lava as the king, a relative of the ruler of Malwah and a jagir holder at Lolab.

28. Lava

● He founded the city named Lalau in Lolab valley [which contained 84 lakh houses according to Kalhana but 80 thousand according to Ratnakar].

● Reigned for 60 years.

29. Kusha

● Son of Lava. Granted the village of Karuhara (Kolar) to brahmins.

● Ruled for 7 years.

30. Khadendra

● Founded Khagi and Khonamusha (now called Kakapur and Khunmuh)

● Reigned for 30 years.

31. Surendra

● In Dravad country founded a town called Soraka. Founded village Saurasa

(now called Shurat) in Deosar tehsil.

● Died without a son. First native Buddhist ruler of Kashmir.

● Ruled for 43 years.

32. Gudhara

● Came from a different family.

● Gave the village of Godhara (Godar) and Hastishala (Hastihel) in Deosar to Brahmins.

● Reign lasted 37 years

33. Suvarna

● Son of Gudhara.

● Brought to Krala (Ardavani/Advin) canal called Suvarnamani Sunamani-kul) for irrigation. The canal flows to the east of the Zainapur plateau.

● Reign lasted 35 years34. Janaka

● Son of Suvarna.

● Founded Jālora Agrahāra and Jāloravihāra, the village Jalora (Zalur) in Zainagir and Vihu.

● Reign lasted 32 years

35. Sachinara

● Son of Janaka. Founded village Shamangasa (Shangas in Kuthar) and village Shanara (Shar in Vihu).

● Reign lasted over 40 years

36. Galgendra

● Nephew of Sachinara.

● In Maraj, founded a city named Naunagar which had 13,0000 houses and brought a stream to this city from the river Rambiara.

● Reign lasted 45 years

37. Baladeva

● Son of Galgendra.

● Founded the village Balapur Suparsuman. Bhigham, the king of Ujjain or modern Delhi sent a force to invade Kashmir but was defeated by


● Himal of the folklore Himal-Nagrai was the daughter of Baladeva.

● Reign lasted 43 years

38. Nalsena

Son of Baladeva. Very cruel. Nalsen in Kashmiri still means a very cruel person.

Died with their family in a fire. Reign lasted 25 years

39. Gokarna

● A noble from Jammu Rajas

● Temple of Sharkadevi at the foot of Pradyumna-pitha (Hari Parbat) built by him. Village Brand (Bren in Phak) was given as brant for maintenance of this temple.

● Reign lasted 36 years

40. Prahlad

● Son of Gokarna. Built the temple of Priteshvara on Shirakut hip in Khuihama formerly called Bu Sangri and now Baba Shukruddin hill.

● Became a sanyasi after coming in touch with a saint named Druna. Gave the kingdom to his minister Bambru.

● Reign lasted 11 years

41. Bambru

● Fell in love with my maternal cousin’s wife named Lolare.

● Reign lasted 8 years

42. Pratapashila

● A descendent of Galgendra.

● Founded the city at the foot of the hill in Vular called Pratapa-Nagar.

Built the temple of Pratabeshvara at Bhawan.

● Reign lasted 36 years

43. Sangram Chandra

● Son of Pratapashila.

● Founded a village named Sangrampura in Pattan.

● Reign lasted 1 year and 4 months.

44. Larik Chandra

● Brother of Pratapashila.

● Built the city Larik-nagar (Lar) at the foot of the Vatargang hill. The city was said to be so dense you could walk the roofs from east to west. Larkul stream was dug on his order in village Lar.

● Reign lasted 31 years

45. Biram Chandra

● Son of Larik Chandra.

● Reign lasted 45 years

46. Babighana

● Son of Biram Chandra. Actual ruler his wife Chakra Rani.

● Reign lasted 17 years

47. Bhawant

● Son of Biram Chandra and Chakra Rani. The reign lasted 14 years

This ends the reign of the lost kings of Kashmir (complied by Pandit Anand Koul based on the writing of Hasan Shah, all categorised as unverifiable.)

The present [definitive] list opens with Asoka since he is the first name of the rulers of Kashmir which has a genuine historical basis. With the accession of Durlabhavardhana (founder of the Karkota dynasty and successor of Baladitya), the genuine historical account of Kalhana begins [annals of the Tang dynasty of China have indicated that his time-line for the Karkota kings needs to be pushed forward by about 25 years].

48. Asoka [1st century BCE/CE]

● The first name is Gonanada I.

● The sway of Asoka over Kashmir is doubtless established, even though the sites mentioned do not exist now.

● Asoka according to Kalhana is the son of Sacinara’s grand-uncle and great-grandson of Sakuni.

● During Asoka’s time, Viharas and Stupas at Suskaletra and Vitastatra came up.

● Foundation of Srinagari, the old capital known as Pandrethan was set up.

Resuscitation of Saiva Shrine at Vijayeshvara.

● Asokesvara temples at Vijayeshvara. [The source of the Ashoka/Jalauka story for Kalhana is the lost history of Chavillākara]

49. Jalanka [Jalauka]

● Supposed son of Asoka and an unnamed woman atop Shankracharya hill as a boon from Bhūteśvara.

● The temple of Shankracharya was built by Jalanka but was not supported by architectural evidence.

● Built the Agrahara at the hamlet of Varabala (Baravul).

50. Damodara III

● The present airport is located in Damodar Udar.

51. Huska [mentioned in Kharoshthi inscriptions]

52. Juska.

● Sten Konow in 1929 based on Kharoshthi inscriptions held him the same as Vasishka.

● According to Konow: Vasishka and Huvishka are mentioned as successors of Kanishka. To explain this, he backs up with the theory of Hemchandra Raychaudhuri about two Kanishka [I, the famous one], is followed by Vasishka, his brother Huvishka, and Kanishka II, son of Vasishka, is the ruler of Kashmir mentioned by Kalhana.

Now accepted chronology based on inscriptions and coins is:

Vima Kadphises 113-127 CE

Kanishka I 127-151 CE

Huvishka 151-190 CE

Vasudeva I 190-230 CE

Kanishka II 230-247 CE

Dr Stein identified Chachh with Chuksha, west of the city of Taxila. Taxila was its capital. Taxila silver vase inscription mentions Jihonika [], the satrap of Chachh, son of ‘Manigula’. His coins however mostly found in Kashmir and Hazara.

53. Kanishka [2nd century (120-144)]

● His capital at Peshawar [where was found Kanishka casket underneath the Kanishka stupa, once a marvel of India, being the tallest building even in the 7th century].

● Kalhana called them Turushkas i.e. Turks. Later Turk kings of Gandhara claim Kanishka as their ancestor. Buddhism at its peak in Kashmir.

According to the uniform Buddhist tradition, Kaniska held the 3rd 4th great Council of the Church in Kashmir under Nagarjuna (said to be near the modern site of Harwan).

● Hiuen Tsiang ( 602 – 664 A.D.) found local traditions regarding Kaniska fully alive in the country during his visit to Nagarjina in Kashmir during the time of Kaniska. Juska has not been identified.

● Founding of towns of Kaniskapura, Huskapura and Juskapura (Kanispor, Uskura and Zukur).

● Kanishka of Gandhara arrived in Kashmir (about 400 years after the death of Buddhas) to dispose of the Kritya* kings who had abandoned Buddhism and fallen back to older traditions. After he leaves. Kritiyas again gain power. According to Konow a Tibetan, the text speaks of King Kanika, who arrived from Khotan to conquer.

● After about 50 years post-death of Buddha (around 450 BC), monk Madhyantika arrives in Kashmir to bring it into the domain of Dharma.

He brings along with him Manushakritya, “householders” (brahmins) slaves to inhibit and serve the place. These people are referred to as Kritiyas in Buddhist texts. They become the rulers of Kashmir after the death of Madhyantika. Native Naga worship mixes with Brahminism.

They were removed from power by Kanishka.

● Hiuen Tsiang mentions that in around 280 A.D (600 years after the death of Buddha) Sakya race king of Himatala [sue-shan-hai/under the snowy mountain] of Tukhara [Indo-Scythians of Central Asia, Bactria, his origin placed in Shakya territory. Driven out of there during Buddha’s time by King Virudhaka.] warriors came in disguise as traders to kill the Kritya king of Kashmir and re-establish Dharma again. After beheading the king in court, he hands over the country to monks and leaves. Krityas come to hate the Dharma all the more as more than once they had been defeated.

54. Abhimanyu I

● The anti-Buddhist trend in Kashmir. The traditional cult as represented in Nilamata-Purana was restored. However, Buddha is mentioned as an avatar of Vishnu in Nilamata and is celebrated. People practice Naga+brahminical+Buddhist practices.

Patanjali’s Mahabhasya was introduced in Kashmir by Chanda. Circa 100 B.C.

55. Gonanda III

56. Vibhisana I

57. Indrajit

58. Ravana

59. Vibhisana II

Restoration of Naga cult and land recovery.

60. Nara [AD. 89-99]

● Also known as “Kimnara”. Founded Narapura (on bank of Vitasta).

Buddhism in decline.

● Nara’s wife is seduced and taken by a Buddhist sramana. Nara responds by destroying Viharas and giving away Buddhist vihara lands to Brahmin Mathas.

● The fantastical tale of Naga Susrava destroying Narapura using thunderbolts as the king coveted Naga’s daughter Chandraleka married to a Brahmin.

● Susrava’s sister Ramani also drops rocks. The people who have taken refuge in Chakrin Vishnu temple are all killed. Vitasta is filled with blood and flesh.

61. Siddha

● Son of Nara. In the end, flew to heaven.

62. Utplaksa

63. Hiranyaksa

64. Hiranyakula

● Founded Hiranyapura (modern Ranyil)

65. Vasukula

66. Mihirakula

● It is assumed Kalhana shows him to be 1200 years earlier than his real date. His father Tormana shows up later in Kalhana’s Rajatarangini.

● It is now understood that there were two Tormana. In the list of Alchon Huns Mihirakula [c.515–540] is proceeded by a Tormana [c.490–515] and followed by a Tormana [c.530–570, father of Parvasena, founder of present Srinagar]. Kalhana claims he is known as Trikotihan, the killer of 3 crores. He killed hundreds of elephants in the ancient past of Pirpantsal for fun.

67. Baka.

● Son of Mihirakula

● First proper mention in Rajatarangini of Yoginis and tantric practice

● Baka attracted by a yoginī called Bhaṭṭā becomes a sacrificial victim

offered to a circle of goddesses (devīcakra). The yoginī acquires

supernatural powers and flies up into the sky.

68. Ksitinanda

69. Vasunandra

● Wrote a handbook on Erotics

70. Nara II

71. Aksa

● Son of Vasunanda

● Aksavala (modern Acchabal) was founded by Aksa

72. Gopaditya

● Son of Aksa

● The Temple of Jyesthesvara on Gopadri is said to be built by him.

73. Gokarna

74. Khinkhila Narendraditya [c.430–490]

● Alchon Hun King.

● In coins represented as “Deva Sahi Khingila”.

● His name is found on the base of a statue of Vinayaka found in Kabul in Proto-Sharda inscription.

● Sharda script taking birth.

75. Pratapaditya I

● The first king of Book II of Rajatarangini.

● Unconnected with the Gonanda dynasty. Supposed to have been a relative of King Vikramaditya.

● Perhaps Harsa Vikramaditya of Ujjain is indicated.

● Kashmir experiences the first instance of prosperity in its early history.

76. Jalankas

● Possible that Kalhana (or his source) in fact was talking about a Hephthalite king [White Huns of Central Asia, now understood to be actually Alchon Hun and not Hephthalite].

● In Sanskrit, the word means “leech”.

● It is possible the whole story was a way to establish Alchon king’s claim over the land by linking himself to Ashoka.

Javukha (c.490) “son of Sadavikha” is assumed to have reigned in the Swat Valley.

77. His son Tunjina I

● A great famine came.

78. Vijaya

● Belonging to a different family.

● Founded town of Vijayesvara (modern Bijibehara)

● Earliest sculpture Brahminical sculptures done in Gandhara + Sasanian style found at Bijibehara belong to the 4th-5th century.

79. Jayandra

80. Sardhimati Aryaraja [Sandhimat]

● Aryaraja was the minster of Jayendra and was cruelly put to death but miraculously restored to life by Yoginis.

● In a burial, ground Yoginis put his bones together in front of his Guru and revive him from death.

● Sandhimat enjoys himself with the intoxicated Yoginis as a ‘leader of their circle’ (cakranāyaka), rituals as told in tantric texts.

● He is elected King.

● Sandhimati Aryaraja seems to have figured in Kashmir tradition as the beau-ideal, a royal devotee. Abdicated and lived as a recluse at Siva-Bhutesa.

81. Megavahana

● [Around 5th century A.D.] Book II Closes with Aryaraja’s abdication.

Restoration of Gonand’s family with Megavahana. Patron of Buddhism.

Said to have come from Gandhara.

● His wife Amrtaprabha. Daughter of King Pragyotisa of Bhutan. Sent to Kashmir with her Guru Stonpa. Built Amrtabhva Vihar.

● Mentioned in the writings of Ou-kong, a Chinese pilgrim who visited Kashmir during the years 759-763 A.D]

82. Sreshthasena (also known as Pravarasena I and Tunjina II)

● Sacred structures at Puranadhisthana (Modern Pandrethan) came up.

● Siva temple of Pravaresvara which existed during Kalhana’s time.

83. Hiranya,

84. Tormana (II) [c.530–570]

● No independent evidence regarding the historical existence of Hiranya.

● Tormana is represented as his younger brother.

● Name of Tormana on a species of Kashmir copper coins, large quantities of which have been found. Evidence of characters suggests 5th and 6th century A.D.

● Based on that earlier experts used to surmise that he is identical to the

Epthalite king Tormana, the father of Mihirkula.

85. Matrgupta

● The story of Kalhana represents Matrgupta as a poor poet who has sought the court of king Harsa, Vikramaditya of Ujjayni.

● This king sends him a letter directing the minister of Kashmir to install him on the throne.

● Abdicates subsequently in favour of Pravarasena II [Alchon king].

● Founded the temple of Matrguptasvamin. During his time flourished Mentha the writer of Hayagrivadha.

86. Pravarasena II [c.530–590, Late 6th century]

● Authentic historical data exists for Pravarsena.

● Represented as the son of Tormana who was on a pilgrimage when Matrgupta was crowned. Supposed to have conquered Gujrat.

● Contemporary of Siladitya who was on the throne of Malava in 580 A.D. as narrated by Hiuen Tsiang.

● He founded the Pravarsenapura or Pravarpura (Modern Srinagar) around Hari Parbat. He plans as Shiva temple Pravareśvarain at Pravarapura, but miraculously a Vishnu image appears at the place, he names it Jayasvāmin after the architect of the temple.

87. Yudhisthira II

● Founded Skandabhavanavihara (modern Khandabhavana)

88. Lakhana,

89. Narendraditya

● Perhaps may be connected to Udayaditya who represents himself as

‘Raja Lakhana Udayaditya’ on his coins – which is a coin of the Epthalite type.

90. Ranaditya [Around 6th century]

● Son of Yudhisthira II and Younger brother of Lahkhana.

● Supposed to have ruled for 300 years. Part of many magical tales.

● Ranaditya in previous birth fell in love with goddess Bhramaravāsinī who lived on the Vindhya mountain.

● Goddess is reborn as Raṇārambhā and marries Ranaditya while retaining her godly supernatural powers. She placed her own double next to her husband every night and flew out herself in the form of a bee.

● The same goddess gave her husband the mantra of Hāṭakeśvara, which helped him to descend to the underworld and enjoy himself there for many years—a superhuman achievement which is called pātālasiddhi in many tantric texts.

Also, the builder of the earliest Vaishnavite Shrine in Kashmir. He builds two Shiva temples, but due to the supernatural powers of his wife, one of the temples becomes a Vishnu temple after the image in the temple miraculously changes.

91. Vikramaditya.

● Son of Ranaditya

92. Baladitya.

● Brother and successor of Vikramaditya.

● Last king of Gonanda’s race. Married his daughter Ananglekha to Durlabhavardhana, who found the Karkota dynasty.

Karkota Dynasty

93. Dwilabhavardhan (600- 636 A.D.)

● Founder of the Karkota dynasty.

● Karkota’s name comes from the name of a mythical Naga serpent deity (a name also mentioned in Nilamata). Durlabhavardhana is said to have been the son of Naga. Thus this is considered to be the start of the rule of the Naga Karkota dynasty.

● Coins show him as “Durlabhadeva”. We have also possibly a reference to Dwilabhavardhana in a notice of the Chinese annals, which mention Tu-lo-pa as a king of India who controlled the route from China to Ki-pin i.e. the Kabul valley somewhere between 629-647.

● Vaisnavism marks a presence in Kashmir among royals. Only one temple of Shiva was built/renovated by this dynasty.

● Hiuen Tsiang ( 602 – 664 A.D.) mentions that in his time neighbouring kings held the Kashmiri Nagas in scorn, they refused an alliance with them. He adds that they even called them, Kilito, translated as Kritya. He says that Kashmir at the time was again in control run of ki-li-ti /Kritiyas and thus Dharma (Buddhism) was in decline.

94. Pratapaditya II/Durlabhaka (636-686 A.D.)

● Built the temple and town of Pratappura (modern Tapar, 22 miles west of Srinagar)

95. Candrapida/Vajraditya (686-695 A.D.)

● Eldest son of Pratapaditya II.

● Founded shrines of Tribhuvanasvamin, Prakasikavihara, Gambhiraswamin and Chalitasvamin. He has been identified with king Tchentolo-lopo-li mentioned in the Chinese Annals as ruling Kashmir

A.D. 713, and again in 720 A.D. This contradicts Kalhana’s account who places him in A.D. 686-695. Only from 855 A.D. are Kalhana’s dates strictly correct. The margin of error in Kalhana dates by 25 years.

● Candrapida worried about the Arab advance of Muhammad Qasim who occupied Sindh and lower Punjab around 711 and 713. Candrapida sought help from China, but none arrived. Qasim was recalled to Damascus by Caliph Sulaiman. Arab invasion was averted.

● In around 712 AD, just when Caliphate forces conquered Sindh, a Syrian refugee named Hanim/Hamim arrives in Kashmir. Considered the first Muslim in Kashmir. Sindh ruler Raja Dahir Sen’s son Jaisya took refuge

in Kashmir and Hanim arrived with him. After Jaisya died, Hanim took over his dependency.

96. Tarapida (695 -699 A.D.)

● Ruled for only 4 years.

● Died of black magic.

97. Lalitaditya Muktapida

● Youngest son of Pratapaditya II.

● The annals of the Tang dynasty know Muktapida, under the name of Mu-to-pi, as the king of Kashmir who sent an embassy to the Chinese court during the reign of Emperor Hiuen Tsung (A.D. 713-755), and after the first Chinese expedition against Baltistan which occurred sometime between A.D. 736-747.

● Lalitaditya was a great conqueror. In the reign of Caliph Hisham (724-43) the Arabs of Sindh under governor Junaid again threaten Kashmir but are defeated by Lalitaditya. Lalitaditya also defeats Yasovarman of Kanauj. Kalhana mentions Bhavabhuti and Vakaoatiraj among the poet of Yasovarman’s court.

● Territories of Jalandhara and Lohar (Present Kangra and Punch), held by Lalitaditya’s feudatories. Sahi princes as well under his tutelage.

Extension towards Yamuna. Kalhana shows Lalitaditya as having conquered the whole of India which is not historically corroborated.

Tokharistan conquered.

● Tibetans subdued. Conquest over Dards. Buddhism and Hinduism flourish equally under him. Died on a central Asian expedition.

● Lalitāditya built a new stone temple to house the ancient Śiva Jyestheśvara at the site of Śiva Bhūteśvara to clear his debt to the latter incurred when he had appropriated the wealth of this temple to finance his military campaigns. The only Shiva temple of the Karkota dynasty.

Jayanta Bhatta wrote Nayanamanjari.

● Kashmir got Martanda Temple, Temples, Chaityas and Viharas at Parihaspura (modern Paraspor). Temple and Vihara at Uskura (ancient Huvishapura). Towns of Parihasapura, Lalitapura (modern Letapor) and Parnotsa (modern Punch).

98. Kuvalayapida

● Kuvalayapida, eldest son of Lalitaditya.

● Ruled for 1 year only and turned into an ascetic practising quietism (śama).

● Bappiyaka was the younger son of Lalitaditya through another queen and ruled for 7 years. Unsteady rule.

● The last two mentioned were his sons who ruled for short period.

99. Vajraditya-Bappiyaka

100. Prthivyapida

101. Samgramapida I (736-751 A.D.)

102. Jayapida (751-782 A.D.)

● Youngest son of Bappiyaka.

● Founded Jayapur – Andrakor town.

● His coins were found in sufficient quantity.

● Credited by Kalhana as ‘digvijaya’ but no corroboration of his conquests.

Usurpation of throne by Jaffa.

103. Lalitapida (782 -794 A.D.)

● Son and successor of Jayapida.

● Neither of him nor of any other later Karkotas any coins have been found.

104. Samgramapida II (794 -801 A.D.)

● Half-brother of Lalitapida.

● Also known as Prthivyapida.

105. Cipattajayapida – Brhaspati (801 -813 A.D.)

● Brhaspati was the son of Lalitapida through Jayadevi, a concubine of low origins.

● Since the king was a child, royal power fell into the hands of his maternal uncles, Padma, Utpala, Kalyana, Mamma and Dharma who built various structures like Utpalasvamin (Temple of Vishnu), Padmasvamin (Temple of Vishnu), the town of Padmapura (modern Pampor), Dharmasvamin (temple of Vishnu), Kalyanasvamin and Mammasvamin beside Utpalapura (modern Kakpor)

106. Ajitapida (813-850 A.D.)

● Grandson of Vajraditya-Bappiyaka whom Utpala put on the throne by armed force after Brhaspati’s death.

● Mamma assumes supreme power.

107. Anangapida (850 -853 A.D.)

● Son of Singramapida II.

● Raised to the throne by Mamma after defeating his brother Utpala.

108. Utapalapida (853 -855 A.D.)

● Son of Ajitapida. Raised to the throne by Sukhavarman, son of Utpala who led a successful rebellion.

● The Temple of Ratnasvamin was built during this era.

● End of Karkota Dynasty. Start of the Utpala dynasty.

109. Avanti Varman (855 -883 A.D.)

● Son of Sukhavarman who was son of Utpala.

● Most peaceful reign in the history of Kashmir. Patronage of arts and literature. Period of great internal recovery. The first soil sample survey was by Suyya who was a great Engineer and regulated the course of Vitasta with great skill.

● Kashmir was saved from floods for many centuries owing to the great

efforts of Suyya. Prosperity in Kashmir. The first reference to Damars or feudal lords of Kalhana.

● They prove of great trouble subsequently. Rudrata writes Kavyalankara, which is one of the earliest references to chess in India, and a reference to Knight’s tour, a mathematical problem in which a knight on a chessboard moves such that it visits every square exactly once.

In A.D. 732 or 733, King Lalitāditya borrowed from the Bhūteśa Temple ten million dirinaras to finance an expedition to the south. Stein identified the temple at Vangath village, and Narnag spring ruins on way to Mount Harmukha.

110. Sainkara Varman (883 -902 A.D.)

● Son of Avanti Varman.

● Spent a lot of time on foreign expeditions. Supposed to have led 9 lakh foot soldiers. Darvabhisara reconquered.

● Prithvicandra, ruler of Trigarta subdued. Victory over Alakhana, the ruler of Gurjara (modern Gujrat in W. Punjab).

● Lalliyasahi of Udbhanda helps Alakhana, but is subdued. Excessive fiscal expectation. Parihaspura town was robbed of material for laying out Pattana.

● Reference to the preparation of woollen clothes at Pattana.

● Died in Hazara.

● Built the town of Sanikarapura later called Pattana (modern Patan).

Temples of Sanikaragaurisa and Sugandhesa temples at Pattam. Also, Ratnavardhanesa temple.

111. Gopalavarman (902 -904 A.D.)

● Son of Sainkara Varman.

● Ruled under the guardianship of his mother Sugandha, since he was too young.

● Murdered through the machinations of Prabhakaradeva, a paramour of Sugandha.

112. Sugandha (904 -906 A.D.)

● Founded the town of Gopalapura and the temple of Gopalakesava.

● Sugandha assumes power after the death of her son.

● Tantrins, a military caste come into power. Their rebellion puts Partha on a throne.

113. Partha (906 -921 A.D.)

● Child-son of Birjitavarman who descended from Suravarman,

half-brother of Avantivarman.

● Sugandha executed. Partha was dethroned by Tantrins in favour of his father.

● Induraja wrote Kavyalankara

114. Nirjitavarma (921 -923 A.D.)

115. Cakravarman (923 -933 A.D.)

● Cakravarman was child son of Nirjitavarma.

● Tantrins demand huge sums as such he is deposed.

116. Suravarman I (933 -934 A.D.)

● Half-brother of Cakravarman.

● He too deposed because he could not pay adequate sums to Tantrins.

Sambhuvardhana (935 -936 A.D.)

● Crown sold to minister Sambhuvardhana. Cakravarman (restored, 936

-937 A.D.)

● Damars support Cakravarman and defeat Tantrins.

● Cakravarman was murdered by Damars.

● Cakravarman is assassinated after he becomes infatuated with the daughters of the ḍomba singer, Raṅga.

118. Unmattavanti (937 -939 A.D.)

● He was another son of Partha.

● Senseless cruelty and wanton license. Destroys his relatives under the influence of Parvagupta, his minister.

● Partha was murdered.

119. Survarman II (939 A.D.)

● Last king of the Utpala dynasty.

● Supposed to be the son of Unmattavanti.

● Ruled only for a few days.

120. Yasaskara (939 -948 A.D.)

● Son of Prabhakaradeva, Sughandha’s paramour.

● Yasaskara was elected king by an assembly of Brahmins.

121. Sangramadeva (948 -949 A.D.)

122. Parvagupta (949 -950 A.D.)

● A descendent of a family of clerks.

● He Murders Sangramadeva and assumes power.

123. Ksemagupta (950-958 A.D.)

● Son and successor of Parvagupta.

● Married lame Didda, granddaughter of Bhimadeva, Shahi ruler of Kabul.

Because the queen was the actual ruler, the coins carried her name too,

the King was known by the moniker, Didda-ksema.

● In the coins, he is prefixed with ‘Di’ which stands for the queen.

● Ksemagupta’s union with Didda brought Kashmir under the rule of the Lohara family which continued to rule Kashmir as well as it’s original home down to the times of Kalhana and later.

● Built temple of Ksemagaurisvara and Bhimakesava (modern Bumazur)

124. Abhimanyu II (958-972 A.D.)

● Son of Ksemagupta.

● Didda assumes guardianship since he was very young.

● Rebellions are mercilessly squashed.

125. Nandigupta (972-973 A.D.)

● Was the young son of Abhimanyu. Regency of Didda continued. Great building activities. Nandigupta was murdered in connivance with Didda.

● Building activities: Abhymanyusvamin, Abhimanyupura, Diddasvamin, etc

126. Tribhuvana (973-975 A.D.)

● Tribhuvana, another grandson also murdered.

127. Bhimagupta (975-980 /1 A.D.)

● Grandson of Didda.

● Tunga, a Khasa from Parnotsa becomes Didda’s Paramour.

● Bhimagupta was put to death by torture by Didda.

128. Didda (980/1-1003 A.D.)

● Didda herself has played an interesting and important part in Kashmir’s history. She was from her mother’s side a granddaughter of King BhimaSahi of Udbhanda. She assumed supremacy for close to half a century, ever since her marriage to Ksemagupta.

● Tunga becomes Prime Minister during her direct rule. Samgramaraja, her brother’s son appointed Yuvaraja.

129. Samgramaraja (1003-28 A.D.)

● Son of udyaraja, brother of Queen Didda.

● The period covered by Samgramaraja’s reign witnessed great upheaval in the political conditions of Northern India under the impact of the invasions of Mahmud of Ghazni.

130. Hariraja (1028-1063 A.D. )

● Son and successor of Samgramaraja ruled for only 22 days and Kingship passed to his young brother.

131. Ananta (1028-1063 A.D. )

● The younger brother of Hariraja.

● Rudrapala and Diddapala, princes of the Sahi family sought refuge in Kashmir and grew in power. Ananta married Suryamati, daughter of Inducandra, ‘lord of Halanidhara’. Risings of Damars under Tribhuvana suppressed.

● Acalamaingala the Dard ruler who attacked Kashmir was defeated.

Kalhana refers to King Bhoja of Malava who used to get water daily from Perpetrated spring (modern Kother).

● Suzerainty is maintained over Darvabhisara, Campa and adjacent hill territories.

● Kashmir got temples of Gaurisvara, Subhatamatha and the temple of Sadasiva. Ksemendra wrote Desopadesa, Narmamala, Darpadalana, Kalavilasa, Samayamatrika, Vrhatkathamanjari, Bharatamanjari, Ramayanamanjari, Pavanapancasika, Suvrttatilakam, Kavikanthabharana, Cirtabharata, Kanakajanaki and Amrtataranga.

● Yogaraja (pupil of Ksemaraja) wrote a commentary on Paramarthasara of Abhinavagupta.

● Bilhana wrote Vikramarikaderacaritam Caurapancasika Understand Karnasundari.

132. Kalasa (1063-1089 A.D.)

● Ananta abdicates in favour of Kalasa, his son, under the influence of his queen Suryamati. Kalasa – a dissolute prince who practises tantric rites with Guru named Pramadakaṇṭha for power which corrupts his mind.

Kalhana hints that Pramadakaṇṭha had relations [sva-sutā-surate] with his own daughter. Kalhana’s indignation is triggered by orthodoxy that looked at tantra practitioners with horror.

● Kalasa attacked his father Ananta who had shifted to Vijayesvara. Ananta commits suicide by sitting on a knife in A.D. 1081 and Suryamati burns herself as Sati. Kalasa consolidated his Kingdom. Assembly of hill chiefs (A.D. 1087-8) when the rulers of eight hill territories around Kashmir from Urasa in the West to Kasthavata in the east assembled at his capital.

The conflict between Kalasa and his son Harsa. Harsa was imprisoned in 1088 A.D. and Utkarsa, his younger brother recalled from Lohara for paving his way to the throne. Kalasa died at the temple of Martanda.

● Kashmir got gold decked Shiv temples of Tripuresvara and Kalasesvar.

● Somadeva wrote Kathasaritasagara.

133. Utkarsa (1089 A.D.)

● Utkarsa ruled for 22 days only. Harsa manages to escape from prison, and Utkarsa commits suicide.

134. Harsa (1089-1101 A.D.)

● Harsa was well-versed in many sciences and a lover of music and arts.

● Harsa introduced into the country more elaborate fashions of dress and ornaments – perhaps an indication of Muhammadan influence – and made his courtiers imitate his own taste for extravagance in personal attire.

● Kalhana’s reference to the Dekhan fashions which Harsa copied in his amusements and also in his coinage is curiously corroborated to some extent by the gold coins of Harsa, which in their type unmistakably imitate the contemporary coinage of Karnata.

● Ruthless spoilation of sacred shrines under Harsha for financial considerations. Temple treasures were ransacked. Muslim captains were employed for the first time under him.

● Harsa was accused of incest. Disastrous expeditions in Rajapuri and

Kisanganaga valley. Disastrous floods. The rebellion of Damars under Uccala and Sussala who were brothers and distantly related to Queen Didda.

● In A.D. 1101 Uccala attacked Kashmir from the West and Sussala from the East. Harsa resisted hopelessly and was ultimately murdered. Uccala was first to occupy Srinagar.

Second Lohara Dynasty

135. Uccala (1101-11 A.D.)

● Uccala was a capable and energetic ruler. The rebellion of Sussala who was made ruler of Punch. Uccala was murdered in his palace by the city prefect and some conspirators.

● Ruyyaka wrote Alamkarasarvasva and Mammata wrote Kavyaprakasa.

136. Radda-Sankharaja (1111 A.D.)

After Uccala, Radda, the brother of the city prefect ruled for one night and was then murdered.

137. Salhana (1111-1112 A.D.)

Gargacandra, a powerful Damara installs Salhana, half brother of Uccala as King.

138. Sussala (1112-20 A.D.)

● Sussala combines with Gargacandra and becomes King. He was the brother of Uccala. His rule was one long succession of internal troubles, caused by the rebellions of the powerful Damara whom Sussala in vain endeavoured to subdue completely.

● Kulhana Rahuta, a Kashmiri under Hoysalas built the first in Doddagadda Valli in Hasan district in 1113 CE in Karnataka.

139. Bhiksacara (1120-1121 A.D.)

● Bhiksacara, Harsa’s grandson combines with Damars and overthrows Sussala.

● Sussala (restored, 1121-28 A.D.)

● Sussala regains the throne in 1121 A.D. Damars burn the famous temple

of Cakradhara during Sussala’s restoration.

● Great conflagrations in Srinagar.

● Sussala was murdered in 1128 A.D.

140. Jayasimha (1128-54 A.D.)

● Jayasimha was son and successor of Sussala.

● Kalhana employs more than 2000 verses (more than 1/4 th of his work) for describing the reign of Jayasimha. Jayasimha’s first 17 years of reign represented struggling against feudal barons (Damars).

● To embarrass him, they set up no less than 5 pretend kings, some of them crowned in the outlying district of Lohara. Jayasimha managed to hold on using intrigues. Mention of Brahmin warriors like Alamkara.

● Among the claimants is Lothana, a brother of Salhana. Lothana sought help from Damara Alamkarachakra (again possible ref. to Chaks) but eventually failed.

● Kalhana closes his account with 1149 A.D. but on the authority of Jonaraja (15th century A.D.) who continued the work of Kalhana, Jayasimha ruled till 1154 A.D. Killed by Turukshas.

● Kalhana wrote Rajatarangini during this reign. Mankha wrote Srikanthacarita. First, Kashmiri word mentioned in Rajatarangini.

● Kashmir got temple of Rilhanesvara. Vihara at Bhalerakaprapa, restorations at Cankunavihara [stupa at Parihasapura], Matha on the shore of Padmasaras. Town of Bhuttapura and Sinihapura.]

141. Parmanuka (1154-64 A.D.)

● Son of Jayasimha

142. Varttideva (1164-1171 A.D.)

● Son of Paramanuka

143. Vopyadeva (1171-1180 A.D.)

● Elected by the people as King.

144. Jassaka (1180-1198 A.D.)

● Younger brother of Vopyadeva.

● Lavanyas powerful under him.

145. Sri Jagadeva (1198-1213 A.D.)

● Son of Jassaka.

● Rooted out evil laws in the country and was well-versed in science.

Expelled by his ministers but subsequently reconquered Kashmir.

Poisoned by Padma, lord of Gates.

● Jayadratha wrote Haricaritacintamani

● Kashmir got temple at Rajjuoura.

146. Rajadeva (1213-1236 A.D.)

● Son of Jagadeva.

● Rebellion by Baladeyacandra, Lord of Lahara.

● Brahmins persecuted as they had elected Rajadeva as King. Bhattas sing,

‘Na Bhatto ham, Na Bhatto ham.’ I am not a Bhatta, I am not a Bhatta.

Built Rajapuri and Rajolaka.

Śārṅgadeva (1175–1247) moves to Deccan kingdom of King Singhana II

(1210–1247) near Ellora Caves (Devagiri, modern Aurangabad).

147. Sangramadeva (1236-1252 A.D.)

● Son of Rajadeva.

● His brother Suryya was his Viceroy but dabbled in intrigues and was murdered. Damaras assume power and persecute people. Sons of Kalhana intrigue against the King. King is murdered.

● Built palace (Srivisala) at Bijibehara.

148. Ramdeva (1252-1273 A.D.)

● Executed the murderers of his father. Those killed included progenies of Kalhana.

● Built fort at Salar on right side of Liddar. Temple at Utpalaputra repaired.

● Marco Polo meets Kublai Khan in around 1271-75.

● In (Buddhist) Iran, Arghun Khan (Ilkhanate King, from 1284 to 1291) demands his grand-uncle Kublai Khan for a bride. The bride is delivered by Marco Polo. But Arghun is dead by the time bride arrives and the bride Kokochin is given to his son Ghazan.

● Polo mentions Kashmir as land of “magicians” who cause rains at will.

Allauddin Simnani (d.1336), uncle and teacher of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani (1314-84), was part of Buddhist Arghun’s court.

● Simnani has religious differences from the king who has great respect for Simnani. Simnani claims persecution in court and flees but it is brought back and forced to go up in debate against Buddhists.

149. Lakshmanadeva (1273-1286 A.D.)

● Adopted son of Ramadeva and a Brahmin by birth. Killed by Kahhala, Turuska by origin.

● His wife Queen Mahila built Mahilamatha.

150. Simhadeva (1286-1301 A.D.)

● Was at constant conflict with Samgramachandra, Lord of Lahara.

● Murdered by Darya, husband of a girl who enjoyed the affection of the king.

● Installed image of Narsmiha at Dhyanoddara.

151. Suhadeva (1301-1320 A.D.)

● Brother of Simhadeva.

● The unsteady rule in Kashmir during this period.

● Dulcha, the commander of the army of the great king Karmasena invaded the country. Brahmins went on fast unto death. The Raja flew to Kishtwar. Dulcha sacked and looted the country for nine months, and finally, his army perished during the winter while recrossing the frontiers.

● During this very period Rincana, king of western Tibet, attacked Kashmiri. He subsequently married Kota Rani, daughter of Ramachandra (Raina), the commander-in-chief (originally Surajvanshi Rajput from Nagarkot Kingdom, present day Kangra)

● Chak’s first arrive in Kashmir from Dardic region under Lashkar/Lankar Chak (or decedent of Alamkarachakra). According to Baharistan-i-Shahi, Lankar Chak, came from Darwurd (or Darud) to Kashmiri along with his family and settled in villageTrehgam (Kupwara District).

● Shah Mir arrives in 1313. With Shah Mir’s help, who had taken the service of Suhadeva, Rincana (Rinchin Shah) occupied the throne of Kashmir.

152. Rincana/Rinchin Shah (1320-1323 A.D.)

● Rincana became a convert to Islam (it is said at the hands of Bulbul Shah) after Shaiva gurus of Devaswom refuse to give religious sanction, and assumed the title of Sultan Sadruddin. Islamic faith received great impetus under him.

● Bulbul Shah (Sayyid Sharafal-Din ‘Abd al-Rahman) of the Suhrawardiyya order, born in Turkistan, which he had to leave because of Mongols. He was a disciple of Shah Nimatullah Wali (born in Aleppo,Syria) who had moved to Kerman in Iran to escape Mongol Tamerlane.

● Kashmir got Bulbul Lankar (death of Bulbul Shah in 1327) and Khanqah.

First royal mosque neat a Buddhist site near Hawal Arampore. Srinagar has known wholly as Kashmir. The name Srinagar only reappears with the Sikh rule late.

153. Udyanadeva (1323-1338 A.D.)

Brother of Simhadeva. Kashmir was attacked by Acala whom used Jonaraja’s words “the lord of Magadhapura had supplied with soldiers”. The king fled but Shah Mir defended the kingdom successfully in his absence. The raja returned subsequently and reigned in Kashmir, but as a mere cypher, Shah Mir being all-powerful.

Lalla, the famous hermitess and poetess was born in 1335 A.D.

154. Kota Rani (1338-1339 A.D.)

● She was the last Hindu sovereign of Kashmir.

● She was murdered by Shah Mir who established the sultanate with the title of Sultan Shamsuddin.

● According to Tarikh-i- Sayid Ali (1569), Kota Rani had a brother named Ravan Raina.

● Ravan Raina had a son named Abdal Raina, a convert to Islam.

● Abdal Raina laid out Rajanakavatika, Garden of Rainas, the area now known as Rainawari.


Source: Search Kashmir https://searchkashmir.org/2016/01/complete-chronology-of-all-kings-of.html










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