Khalistan is once again in discussion in the country. This time Sikh and Hindu organizations came face to face in Patiala, Punjab regarding the anti-Khalistan march. During this there was a lot of violence.

Earlier, during the Punjab Assembly elections, Khalistan and Khalistani were in discussion on the pretext of Arvind Kejriwal. Social media was flooded with hashtags related to Khalistan even during a year-long farmers’ agitation on the Delhi border against the three agricultural laws. Many people associated with the power had termed the peasant movement as the movement of Khalistanis.

However, the Khalistan movement has now become history. Barring a few, the support of this movement among the Sikhs has been lost.

Khalistan terrorists and their supporters also killed former PM Indira Gandhi, former Punjab CM Beant Singh and former Army Chief General AS Vaidya.

In such a situation, let us know what was the Khalistani movement? What was its demand and how did it end?

Question 1: What was Khalistan movement?

  • The story of Khalistan movement begins in 1929. In the Lahore session of Congress, Motilal Nehru proposed Poorna Swaraj. During this three types of groups opposed this proposal.
  • First- Muslim League under the leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah. The second group was the Dalits. Which was led by Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar. Ambedkar was demanding rights for the Dalits. The third faction was of Shiromani Akali Dal led by Master Tara Singh.
  • Tara Singh for the first time put forth the demand for a separate state for the Sikhs. In 1947 this demand turned into a movement. It was named as Punjabi Suba Movement.
  • At the time of independence, Punjab was divided into two parts. Shiromani Akali Dal was demanding a separate Sikh suba i.e. Sikh state on linguistic basis in India itself. The States Reorganization Commission formed in India refused to accept this demand.
  • For 19 years there were agitations and demonstrations for a separate Sikh province all over Punjab. Incidents of violence started increasing during this period. Eventually in 1966 the Indira Gandhi government decided to divide Punjab into three parts.
  • Sikh-majority Punjab, Hindi speaking Haryana and a third part Chandigarh.
  • Chandigarh was made a Union Territory. It was made the capital of both the new territories. Apart from this, some mountainous areas of Punjab were merged with Himachal Pradesh.
  • Despite this big decision, many people were not happy with this partition. Some were dissatisfied with the territories given to Punjab, while others were unhappy with the idea of ​​a common capital.

Question 2: What was the Anandpur Sahib resolution?

  • The Akali Dal got a lot of political advantage from the Punjabi movement. After this, under the leadership of Parkash Singh Badal, the party gave a tough fight to the Congress in the 1967 and 1969 assembly elections.
  • However, the 1972 election proved to be a bad one for the rising political graph of the Akalis. Congress came to power. This forced the Shiromani Akali Dal to think.
  • In 1973, the Akali Dal demanded autonomy, that is, more rights for its state. The demand for this autonomy was sought through the Anandpur Sahib Resolution.
  • In the Anandpur Sahib Resolution, the Sikhs demanded a separate constitution for a more autonomous Punjab. By 1980, support among Sikhs grew in favor of the Anandpur Sahib Resolution.

Question 3: Who was Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale?

  • A staunch supporter of the Anand Sahib resolution was Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale. Bhindranwale, who started his journey as a ragi, later became a terrorist.
  • Well known Sikh journalist Khushwant Singh said that Bhindranwale used to instigate every Sikh to kill 32 Hindus. He said that this would solve the problem of Sikhs forever.
  • In 1982, Bhindranwale joined hands with the Shiromani Akali Dal and started the non-cooperation movement. This non-cooperation movement later turned into an armed rebellion.
  • During this, whoever opposed Bhindranwale came in his hit list. Due to this, Khalistan terrorists killed the founder and editor of Punjab Kesari, Lala Jagat Narayan. The terrorists did not spare even the newspaper hawker.
  • Sanjay Gandhi, the son of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, is said to have supported Bhindranwale to counter the growing political influence of the Akali Dal at that time.
  • After this, Bhindranwale entered the Golden Temple to escape from the security forces. For two years the government did not take any step. Meanwhile, Bhindranwale occupied the Akal Takht built in the Golden Temple complex.

Question 4: Why did the Indian Army have to be called?

  • Other options were discussed earlier. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi had almost approved a covert ‘snatch and grab’ operation to capture Bhindranwale. 200 commandos were also trained for this operation.
  • When Indira Gandhi asked how much damage could be caused to the common people during this period, she did not get any answer. After this, Operation Sundown was stopped.
  • After this the government decided to send the army. The decision was taken after it is said that on June 5 all Congress (I) MPs and MLAs were threatened with death and plans to start mass killings of Hindus in villages were revealed.

Question 5: What was Operation Bluestar?

  • The army operation launched by the Indira government to clear the Golden Temple from Bhindranwale and armed supporters was named Operation Blue Star.
  • Between 1 and 3 June 1984, rail, road and air services were closed in Punjab. The supply of water and electricity to the Golden Temple was cut off. A complete curfew was imposed in Amritsar.
  • CRPF was patrolling the streets. All entry and exit points to and from the Golden Temple were also completely sealed.
  • The first phase of the operation was launched on 5 June 1984 at 10:30 pm. The attack was launched from the front on the buildings inside the Golden Temple complex. During this, Khalistani terrorists also opened fire on the army.
  • The army could not advance. On the other hand, in the rest of Punjab, the army had also started simultaneous operations to nab the suspects from villages and gurdwaras.
  • A day later, General KS Brar called for tanks to deal with the situation. On June 6, the tanks were brought down the stairs to the parikrama path. The Akal Takht building was heavily damaged in the firing. The bodies of Bhindranwale and his commanders were recovered a few hours later.
  • By 7 June, the Indian Army took control of the complex. Operation Bluestar ended at noon on 10 June 1984. During this entire operation, 83 soldiers of the army were martyred and 249 were injured.According to the government, 493 terrorists and civilians were killed in the attack. However, several Sikh organizations claim that at least 3,000 people were killed during the operation.
  • According to the government, 493 terrorists and civilians were killed in the attack. However, several Sikh organizations claim that at least 3,000 people were killed during the operation.

Question 6: What happened after the operation was over?

  • Several Sikh leaders, including Captain Amarinder Singh, resigned from the Congress in protest against the loss of innocent lives in Operation Bluestar. Prominent writers including Khushwant Singh returned their government awards.
  • Four months later, on 31 October 1984, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was shot dead by two of her Sikh bodyguards.
  • More than 8,000 Sikhs were killed in the 1984 anti-Sikh riots that followed. Most of the riots happened in Delhi. It is alleged that Congress leaders encouraged these riots.
  • A year later, on 23 June 1985, Khalistan supporters living in Canada blew up an Air India flight with a bomb. During this 329 people died. The terrorists of Babbar Khalsa called it a revenge for Bhindranwale’s death.
  • On 10 August 1986, former Army Chief General AS Vaidya, who led Operation Bluestar, was assassinated by two bike-borne terrorists in Pune. Khalistan Commando Force had claimed responsibility for the killing.
  • On 31 August 1995, a suicide bomber blew himself up near the car of Punjab CM Beant Singh. Beant Singh was killed in this. Singh was credited with eliminating terrorism in Punjab.


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