For the Muslim ummah, the formation of Pakistan is perceived as one of the greatest occurrences which have happened in Islamic History among the Muslim masses since they suffered heavy losses after the fall of the ottoman empire and Mughal empire in Arabs and India respectively, and series of the continuous decline in their military, political and diplomatic power was evident at that time, therefore the building of Pak was very crucial from the ummah’s perspective. In the making of Pakistan, the lessons which came out from the tragedy of Pak creation weren’t learned by our Hindu leaders till now, the strategy and tactics employed by Muhmmamed Ali Jinnah who is revered in Pakistan as the creator of Pak, cannot be understood very well without understanding the ideology of Islam, the whole events of India’s Partition also revolves around 2 more Hindu leaders, one is Mr. Gandhi and other is Dr. Ambedkar. These 3 political personalities in the India Politics were though advocate by profession but their Viewpoints on many vital issues related to India’s problem, Indian culture, religion stood in contrast with their other 2 counterparts. Their differences in opinion were reflected in their speeches, writings, and letters at that time, all 3 of them completed most of their studies outside India i.e on the foreign soil, and then came to India to join politics and became leaders of their own organization. To assess the scenarios during the creation of Pakistan we will one by one try to comprehend the thinking, mindset of these leaders so that we can visualize which Ideology is more righteousness in its approach towards our concern and then it will be left to the reader to decide whose leader’s vision they would wish to embrace considering the present circumstances.
The leader which was at the forefront of his so-called Struggle for Pakistan was Muhammed Ali Jinnah, who was the prominent leader of the Muslim League which was formed in 1906 in Dhaka, the reason behind its formation was given to address the grievances of Muslims by peaceful negotiations with Britishers and by the constitutional method in British regime, Muslim league at that time was known to be an organization of elite and educated Muslims and not of the conservative Mullahs, politically in its early days it was very weak with no political base which can be understood from the fact that in 1935 election Jinnah’s league got only 4.8% Muslim votes. Jinnah in Congress was known as the embodiment of Hindu Muslim unity and Mr. Gandhi always praised him, then the year arrived of 1937 when Jinnah did a seismic shift in his politics by demanding for a separate homeland for Indian Muslims and the reasons, the logic he gave in support of his demands took Gandhi and other Congress leaders by a surprise, he gave 2 nation theory for the vivisection of India even prior to the partition and not only that he condemned the British govt plan of giving separate land to the jews in arab peninsula, this all shows that causes of Islam and Muslim ummah was primary for him but not the india’s freedom, Jinnah also said that Hindu and Muslims are mutually antagonistic to each other whose roots date back to the time of Moghul period , his speeches were meant for arousing the Muslim sentiments and sympathy for Pakistan movement and told his audience that after departure of Britishers, Muslim will become slave of Hindus and would get submerged under the Hindu domination, Jinnah was also trying to portray his 2 nation theory as a permanent solution to Hindu Muslim riots which causes civil unrest in united India, however Jinnah was unable to give an information about further nature of Pakistan state, the critics always pointed to that which jinnah always dodged very cleverly.
Hindus and Muslims take inspiration from different sources of History, to whom we consider our heroes Hindu conceives them as their foe and vice versa, many times the defeat of one overlaps with the victory of otherMohd Ali Jinnah
It is the birthright of Every Muslim to have a legitimate feeling of self-determination and they are inherently a Muslim nation, we have all postulates which constitute a Nation and we are entitled to exercise itMohd Ali Jinnah
Hindu and Muslims are two distinct nations with their own culture, tradition, sense of values, the legal system, moral codes, customs, and calenders, in short, we have our own view of the outlook of on life and of life, by all canons of international law we are a nationMohd Ali Jinnah
The leader which held a very unique political stature in the minefields of Indian politics was Mr. Gandhi who was very famous for his method of persuasion such as fastening for his demands, engineering marches, rallies with the goal of the ouster of Britishers from India, Gandhi at once called the demand of separate Muslim nation as absurd and nonsensical in nature, he asked Jinnah to support Congress in their nationalistic movement against Britishers, Gandhi was of the belief that Hindu Muslim unity is must to end the British rule in India and rejected Jinnah’s statement that Hindus are foes of Muslims, he said that there is no ethnic and linguistic difference between Hindu and Muslim in any part of India, Gandhi refused to see Jinnah as the sole representative of Muslim community and said that Hindu and Muslims were united before the British arrival in India, the Britishers which have created divisiveness through their colonial policies so that they can rule India very easily, Gandhi here was Partly right and partly wrong since the accurate and correct analysis of History suggest that Hindus and Muslims were at perpetual state of war, the Britishers decision of conceding separate electorate to Muslim may have proliferated the cleavages between Hindu and Muslim. Gandhi was of the view that Muslims in India were successors of those Hindus who converted to Islam, even if they changed their faith to some other religion, their nationality remains unaltered only for India. The statements given by Gandhi for Hindu Muslim unity and against the 2 nation theory were
Partition means a patent untruth, my whole soul rebels against the idea that Hinduism and Islam are antagonistic to each other, for I believe with my own soul that God of Gita and the Quran is the same, we are all one, no matter by what name we are designated with, but we are children of the same of godMr Gandhi
Hindu and Muslim are not two nations, every Muslim will have the same Hindu name if he traces his family history, every Muslim is merely a Hindu who had accepted Islam, we all speak the same language for instance in Tamil Nadu both Hindu and Muslim speak Tamils, when communal riots take place then they are provoked by incidents over cows or superstitions that create trouble but not a separate nationalityMr Gandhi
I have the fullest confidence in the sincerity of Muslims, I will never talk an ill of them even if they kill me, I have never done a disservice to Islam and never wronged Muslims, I have not found any parallel in history where the body of converts claim for a separate homeland, even Moghuls never divide India, the partition is unethical to Islam and united India is my article of faithMr Gandhi
Apart from Jinnah and Mr. Gandhi, there was one more leader Dr. Ambedkar who was explicitly expressing his point of view on India’s partition by very effectively introspecting the whole political situation of India by his voluminous writings and books, Dr. Ambedkar viewed Partition as the remedy to communal riots in India, therefore, he emphasized on the fact that if Pakistan is formed then the full-fledged transfer of population should occur with every Muslim in Pakistan and Hindus in India, he stated that if Muslims still remain in India even after partition then the partition is of no avail and within few decades India would again witness the issues which they countered in 1947 partition, Dr. Ambedkar also reviled Mr. Gandhi for keeping silence on the slaughter of Hindu by Muslim and told that attitude of Gandhi is not understandable to me as he never even condemned the brutal killings of Hindu leader like Nathramal Sharma, Swami shradhanand, etc. Dr. Ambedkar also had deep insights about the Islam and called Islam as the religion where a kafir is no respect and therefore he asked all Hindus of Pakistan to vacate it and come to India otherwise they all will be killed by Muslims in Pakistan, he was true the Hindus in Pakistan are now even less than 1.8% in 2020 whereas in 1947 they were nearly 25% of total Pakistan population. Dr. Ambedkar agreed to Jinnah at many points, he told that after adopting Islam as their faith, the concerns and nationality of an individual get transformed that is the reason behind Indian Muslim anxiousness about the restoration of khilafat in far flung Turkey, their fellows were Muslims only and not any kafir. He also gave statements that
A true Muslim can never adopt India as it motherland, their center of allegiance does not lie in India but lies in Jazizurat al arab i.e lands of arab, Islam does not recognize any ethnic and linguistic similarity but accepts only religious affinityDr Ambedkar
The brotherhood of Islam means the brotherhood of Muslim is only for the Muslims, it is only for those who are in the confinements of Islam and not for those who lie outside the Islamic corporationDr Ambedkar
As per Muslim canon law, the world is divided into two camps, Darul harab, and Darul Islam, due to this law India can only be a land of Muslim if it is ruled by them and not Hindu, Jihad is incumbent on a Muslim ruler to extend the rule of Islam until the whole world is islamizeDr Ambedkar
The ideologies, beliefs, and vision of all these leaders are very distinct from one another, Mr Gandhi was trying to persuade Muslims by giving them a free hand to do whatever menace they can in the name of Hindu Muslim unity and only binded Hindus with the obligatory duty to preserve this unity at any cost, Dr. Ambedkar condemned the concession given to Muslims by Mr. Gandhi and Jinnah always tried to picture Mr. Gandhi as the Hindu representative and chided away all the arguments of Gandhi which he gave against 2 nation theory, Jinnah though admitted that even after partition 2 crore Muslim would live in India as a minority and Dr. Ambedkar opposed it, Jinnah assured that minority will be given good treatment in Pakistan and would be more safe and secure in Pakistan, Jinnah’s 2 nation theory was unable to resolve the problem of minority which was foreseen by Dr ambedkar, Jinnah’s words and action were absolutely mirroring the fundamental aspects of Islam and that’s why he insisted for his baseless demand of Pakistan which later proved to be a failed Islamic state. The entire series of events and chain of reactions of Pakistan movement of Jinnah firmly established the fact that for any Muslim Islam comes first which was evident from the Muslim league support to British during second world war to gain sympathy of Britain for Pakistan during civil disobedience movement, its time for the Hindu masses to decide and judge which ideology dealts with there present political, social and cultural affairs of the nation more efficiently so as to avoid the blunders of the past. That is left for the reader to decide whose path they are going to follow Dr Ambedkar, jinnah or Gandhi.
DISCLAIMER: The author is solely responsible for the views expressed in this article. The author carries the responsibility for citing and/or licensing of images utilized within the text.