Regardless of the relationship between Hindus and Muslims in the political arena today, during the medieval period of Mughal rule, Muslim devotees, saints, and poets sang hymns to Hindu deities and created literary works that evolved and enriched Hindi, Awadhi, Urdu, and Braj literature. Witnessing their contribution, Bharatendu Harishchandra had verbally expressed:  “इन मुसलमान हरिजनन पै कोटीन हिन्दू वारिए”. Bharatendu did not make this verbalization impulsively or out of emotion. If we visually examine the literature produced by such Muslim devotees, saints, and poets, there is no doubt that we will make the same verbal expression.

Between the twelfth and seventeenth centuries, many devout Muslims became poets and saints. During this time many political, ethnic, religious, and cultural upheavals took place. The monotheism of the Indians and the monotheism of the Muslims had their own principles and traditions in the society. The clash of two different sects and opposing cultures had engendered an ideological mystification in the social structure. At such a time, the desperate and frustrated masses needed comprehensive guidance to gain noetic support and spiritual vigor. Under such circumstances, amidst religious rituals and caste intricacies, devotees and saints from the Antyaja and Impalpable castes began the Nirguna Sant tradition by aptly weaving Hinduism and Islamism. This Nirguna Sant tradition included Muslims along with other castes.

The development that was created in this reverential practice depended on the conviction that there is a closeness between the preeminent presence of God and the essentialness of individuals. The writers and holy people said that the primary method for salvation for the majority is to achieve enlightenment by joining commitment and dedication and love. While revering the amorphous Lord, these Nirguna enthusiasts used to call him by the names of Ram, Govind, Hari, Raghunath, and so forth. The best way to achieve God is to drench your spirit in God. Complete acquiescence. Total surrender. These holy people realized that reciting the name of the Lord cleanses the spirit and man accepts His elegance. This change time of Hindu-Muslim solidarity and reverential development turned into a time of enlivening of the whole of humankind. During this period of change, Rama and Krishna became known as the new know-it-alls, and the two Hindu gods gained incomparable status.

The poets of Nirgun Muslim culture understood the significance of chanting the name of Lord Ram.  Ramnama was assimilated by them wholeheartedly. Those Muslim saints adopted Ram as their own deity in order to contribute to the creation of religious-cultural harmony in social life.  No matter who was involved, not just Kamil Bulke, but the medieval saints Kabir, Dadu, Rajab, Jayasi, Rahimdas, Wajid Sheikh, Alam, Mubarak, etc. they all loved Rama.  In modern times  even George Harrison of ISKCON chanted Hare Rama Hare Krishna. George Harrison left 20 million British pounds for ISKCON.  The disheveled hippies came to the beaches of  Goa and chanted Hare Rama Hare Krishna with a guitar in their hands.  The Beatles band or the disciples of  Swami Srila  Prabhupada also were immersed in these chanting. The galaxy of Muslim saints embraced these two deities by constantly chanting the famous line. Two saints who left an indelible impression in this saintly congregation were Kabir and Rahim. The couplets composed by these two are timeless and still sung with equal interest and fervor in both societies.

The meaning of the word Kabir is being omniscient. Despite his Muslim upbringing, Kabir was a devotee of Rama. His presence was an important historical moment of the devotional period. Whether Kabir was born a Muslim is a matter of research, but he adopted a Julaha caste as his own. Besides being the founder of the Nirgun branch, Kabir was a poet, a saint, and a devotee. Kabir symbolizes devotion in Hinduism. Muslims and Hindus alike have praised his merit. In contrast to Saint Tulsidas, he did not observe the subtle differences in the monotheistic ideologies of Indians and Muslims, as he accepted Ram in both the forms, both Saguna and Nirguna . Kabir thus was able to bridge the Hindu-Muslim divide.

Kabir’s master Ramananda advised him to pay attention to Ramanam, which is a definitive standard. As an understudy of Ramananda, Kabir was urged to rise above religion and position to give himself to Rama. Kabir was shockingly better than yogis, Siddhapurushas, Pandits, and different Muslims when it came to composing couplets while recounting Ram Naam. He says: “Brahma is Rama, and He is Rahim,” when lecturing individuals who could not help contradicting their religion or rank. Take on Rama as your Savior. There isn’t anything that can obliterate Ramanama, and it is indestructible and divine. As far as lucidity and effortlessness, Ramanama is better than Vedas, Puranas, and Smriti. As indicated by him, Ramanama implies:

निर्गुण राम जपहुं रे भाई, अविगति की गति लखी न जाई, चारि वेद जाके सुमृत पुरानां, नौ व्याकरनां मरम न जांनां।”

Isolating himself from the contention throughout his time, Kabir said: “I’m not a Hindu and I am not a Muslim. I have given up myself to Rama. The impact of Ramnama has made me inexpressibly pleased with light. There is such sorcery in the examination and recognition of Rama, it spellbinds everybody, be it Hindu or Muslim. The force in recalling the Ramnama makes an experience at each phase of life that is blessed. Rama relates to the spirit of the human psyche. Rama is inseparable from Atma and Paramatma. ”  ‘ Rama by Kabir ‘ was considered as Kabir’s philosophy, the tempestuous progression of which nobody could stop.

In this way, Kabir’s Rama has turned into a subject of edification and enlightenment. It is better than philosophical hypothesis and logic and has become all-inclusive. Like Kabir, his contemporary Muslim devotees saw, perceived, and communicated Rama dependent on their own insight.

Kabir’s impact encompassed his contemporary saint Dadu Dayal. Dadu’s follower Rajab Ali Khan Pathan was likewise an adherent of Rama. Rajab asks the majority, yogis, learned men, and holy people to recollect the name of Rama and keep it in their souls. He says:सेवक राम का रे, सदगुरू की सुन धारि, राम नाम उर राखिये भाई, आतम तत्व उबारि ।

He sings the song of unity of ‘Ram-Rahim’ and ‘Keshav-Karim’, and he has been subdued by the love of Rama. Just as fire melts two pieces of gold into each other, so this love unites Rama and Atma, he says रज्जब पावक प्रेम है, कंचन आतम राम, गल मिलावै दुहिन को, प्रेम करे यह काम।

Rajab accepted that the achievement of Rama didn’t need the restrictions of a Hindu or the glory of a Muslim. He will get it only by recalling,  ‘रज्जब राम रटै सोई पावै’. That is, whoever recollects Rama will see Rama.

One individual in the disciple tradition of Dadu Dayal is known as Wajid Pathan. Dadu Dayal’s advice gave him inner serenity. He then, at that point, bowed at Dadu’s feet and began reciting Rama Nama.  Saint  Raghodas has expounded on it in this way —  “छाड़िकै पठान कुल, राम नाम कीन्हों पाठ।”

Wajid stated that it makes no difference whether devotees are Hindus or Muslims who have attained the highest level of knowledge. Wajid realized the glory of ‘Ram Nama’ through Guru’s grace, so he kept chanting Ram Nama incessantly. Says he: रामनाम की लूट फबी है जीव कू, निसवासर वाजिद सुमरता जीव कू। कहियो जाय सलाम, हमारी राम को, नैंन रहे झड़ लाय, तुम्हारे नाम को।”

Among the Muslim writers and saints of the middle ages Abdurrahim Khankhana of Akbar’s court,  known as Rahimdas,  stands apart unmistakably among the galaxies  of Sufi and Hindu saints of the contemporary era. Rahimdas, who had confidence in Hinduism, was a contemporary of Saint Tulsidas of Ramcharitmanas and the two were companions. The Pandits were furious as Tulsidas composed Valmiki’s Sanskrit in local lingo and so when the Pandits attempted to harm him, Rahim gave Tulsidas shelter in the mosque. Tulsidas wrote about this in these couplets:

तुलसी सरनाम गुलामु है रामको, जाको रुचै सो कहै कछु ओऊ। माँगि कै खैबौ, मसीतको सोइबो, लैबोको एकु न दैबेको दोऊ॥(I am Tulsi, Rama’s slave; you say anything you like; I beg and eat; I sleep in the mosque; I am unconcerned.) Tulsi eventually went to the mosque to get away from the Pandits’ antics. He found peace there and began writing again.

Like Kabir, Rahim likewise created couplets portraying his way of thinking of life.”रहिमन धागा प्रेम का, मत तोरो चटकाय |टूटे पे फिर ना जुरे,जुरे गाँठ परी जाय I” is one of his most popular two-line  harmony . The multilingual Rahim was a military general who battled the wars, he was the provider, the representative, a craftsman, the artistic figure, the celestial prophet, an altruist, and furthermore a firm enthusiast of Rama and Krishna. Rahimdas, who wrote his couplets utilizing nom de plume ‘Rahiman’ , wrote in Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Sanskrit, Hindi, Awadhi, and Braj showing his skills with these dialects.

Rahim’s Dohavali is an assortment of 300 couplets. Rasleela of Radha-Krishna’s is depicted in Malini Vritta (meter) in a combination of Khadi vernacular and Sanskrit, in the elaborate sonnet named Madnashtak. Khet Kautukjatkam is a book on soothsaying written in a blended language of Sanskrit, Persian, and Hindi. He had acquired dominance over Ramayana, Mahabharata, and eighteen Puranas. He additionally made some reflection sections in Sanskrit, which is known as ‘Rahim Kavya’. He has offered his viewpoints on morals and dedication in his Dohavali. He has utilized  Vrittas (meters) like Shardulvikridit, Malini, Shikharini,  Vasanttilaka, Varvai, Sorath, Kavitta, Savvaya and so on  to pen his sonnets. His ethical couplets are extremely famous in the Hindi speaking belts. Barwai Ramayana of Saint Tulsidas  is impacted by Rahim’s Barwai Nayakabheda. It is hard to track down another Muslim artist who has infiltrated so profoundly into Indian culture and become embedded in it.


Compared to Akbar’s “Deen-e-Ilahi,” Rahim gives Hindutva a much greater prominence in his poetry.  Rahim, despite his Muslim faith, was a pure Indian in terms of culture. Rahim was a humanist and liberal who lived without caste-based prejudice. His knowledge of Hindu deities and ways of worship was thorough. The Rama of Rahim is similar to Tulsi’s Rama, the protector of the poor and refugees.

Rahim says:गहि शरणागति राम की, भवसागर की नाव। रहिमन जगत उधार कर, और न कछु उपाव ।

In memory of Rama’s residence in Chitrakoot during his exile, Rahim would return to Chitrakoot when he himself was in trouble. As an expression of the importance of the place, Rahim says: चित्रकूट में रमि रहे, रहिमन अकध नरेस। जापर विपदा पड़त है, सो आवत यह देस।

Through his  dohas, Rahim reveals how deeply Rama’s story has inspired people as he presents small events from around the world with great skill and evidence:ओछे काम बड़े करें, तौ न बड़ाई होय। ज्यों रहीम हनुमंत को, गिरधर कहै न कोय।

Many Muslim poets, saints, and followers who practiced monotheism worshipped Hindu deities. They were heavily influenced by Hinduism. When reading their poetry and couplets, it is clear that they believed strongly in Hinduism and culture, and their works are still widely read today. These devoted Muslim poets helped to build Hindu-Muslim brotherhood. Through the efforts of these saints, social inertia and excess were nearly eradicated. As a result, Bharatendu Harishchandra expressed his gratitude for their services by saying: “इन मुसलमान हरिजनन पै कोटीन हिन्दू वारिए”.


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